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78 terms

Chapter 8 - Communications and Networks

Vocabulary from Discovering Computers Fundamentals 2011 Edition
STUDY
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802.11
Series of network standards developed by IEEE that specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other
802.16
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode; service that carries voice, data, video, and multimedia at very high speeds bandwidth - The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel
Bluetooth
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use short-range radio waves to transmit data
broadband
High-speed Internet connection provided through cable, DSL, fiber, radio signals, or satellite
broadcast radio
Wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances such as between cities, regions, and countries and short distances such as within an office or home
cable modem
Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network
cellular radio
High-speed Internet connection for devices with built-in compatible technology or computers with wireless modems
client/server network
Network in which one or more computers act as a server, and the other computers on the network request services from the server
clients
Other computers and mobile devices on a network that rely on a server for its resources
coaxial cable
A single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: (1) an insulating material, (2) a woven or braided metal, and (3) a plastic outer coating
collaborate
Work online with other users connected to a server
collaborative software
Software that includes tools that enable users to share documents via online meetings and communicate with other connected users
communications
Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information
communications channel
Transmission media on which data, instructions, or information travel
communications device
Hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers
communications satellite
Space station that receives microwave signals from an earth-based station, amplifies (strengthens) the signals, and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area to any number of earth-based stations
communications software
Programs that (1) help users establish a connection to another computer or network; (2) manage the transmission of data, instructions, and information; and (3) provide an interface for users to communicate with one another
cybercafé
Coffeehouse, restaurant, or other location that provides personal computers with Internet access to its customers
dedicated line
Type of always-on connection that is established between two communications devices (unlike a dial-up line where the connection is reestablished each time it is used)
dial-up line
Temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communications
dial-up modem
Communications device that can convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals to digital signals, so that data can travel along an analog telephone line
digital modem
Communications device that sends and receives data and information to and from a digital line
document management system (DMS)
System for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets
DSL
Acronym for digital subscriber line; type of digital technology that provides high-speed Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines
DSL modem
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to a DSL line and receives digital data and information from a DSL line
Ethernet
Network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network should control when data can be transmitted
fiber-optic cable
Dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals
FTTP (Fiber to the Premises)
Dedicated line that uses fiberoptic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internet access to a user's physical permanent location
global positioning system (GPS)
Navigation system that consists of one or more earthbased receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the receiver's geographic location
groupware
Software that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over a network
home network
Network consisting of multiple devices and computers connected together in a home
IrDA
Infrared Data Association; network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines
ISDN modem
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to an ISDN line and receives digital data and information from an ISDN line
latency
The time it takes a signal to travel from one location to another on a network
local area network (LAN)
Network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings
mashup
Web application that combines services from two or more sources, creating a new application
metropolitan area network (MAN)
High-speed network that connects local area networks in a metropolitan area such as a city or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across that region
microwaves
Radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission
network
Collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media, allowing computers to share resources
network card
Communications device that enables a computer or device that does not have built-in networking capability to access a network
network standard
Guidelines that specify the way computers access the medium to which they are attached, the type(s) of medium used, the speeds used on different types of networks, and the type(s) of physical cable and/or the wireless technology used
network topology
Layout of computers and devices in a communications network
noise
Electrical disturbance that can degrade communications
P2P
Type of peer-to-peer network on which users access each other's hard disks and exchange files directly over the Internet
PCS
Personal Communications Services; term used by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to identify all wireless digital communications
peer-to-peer network
Simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers
picture messaging
Photo or other image, sometimes along with sound and text, sent to or from a smart phone or other mobile device
receiving device
Device that accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or information
RFID
Short for radio frequency identification; standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person
ring network
Type of network topology in which a cable forms a closed loop (ring) with all computers and devices arranged along the ring
router
Communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network
sending device
Device that initiates instructions to transmit data, instructions, or information
server
Computer that controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information
SMS
Short message service; service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a phone or other mobile device or computer
star network
Type of network topology in which all computers and devices on the network connect to a central device, thus forming a star
T1 line
The most popular T-carrier line
T-carrier line
Any of several types of long-distance digital telephone lines that carry multiple signals over a single communications line
TCP/IP
Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how messages (data) are routed from one end of a network to the other, ensuring the data arrives correctly
text messaging
Service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a smart phone or other mobile device or computer
token ring
Network standard in which computers and devices on the network share or pass a special signal, called a token, in a unidirectional manner and in a preset order
transmission media
Materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals in a communications channel
twisted-pair cable
Transmission media that consists of one or more twisted-pair wires bundled together
UWB (ultra-wideband)
Network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds with each other
value-added network (VAN)
Third-party business that provides networking services such as secure data and information transfer, storage, e-mail, and management reports
video messaging
Wireless messaging service that allows users to send short video clips, usually about 30 seconds in length, in addition to all picture messaging services
visual voice mail
Voice mail feature that allows users to view message details such as the length of calls and, in some cases, read message contents instead of listening to them
voice mail
Service that functions much like an answering machine, allowing a user to leave a voice message for one or more people
Web conference
Online meeting that takes place on the Web
Web services
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B (business-to-business) interactions over the Internet
wide area network (WAN)
Network that covers a large geographic area (such as a city, country, or the world) using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and radio waves
Wi-Fi
Short for wireless fidelity. Type of broadband Internet connection that uses radio signals to provide high-speed Internet connections to compatible or properly equipped wireless computers and devices
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that specifies how some wireless mobile devices such as smart phones can display the content of Internet services such as the Web, e-mail, and chat rooms
wireless Internet access point
Location where people can connect wirelessly to the Internet using notebook computers, smart phones, handheld game consoles, or other devices
wireless LAN (WLAN)
Local area network that uses no physical wires
wireless modem
Modem that uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from a notebook computer, a smart phone, or other mobile device