29 terms

Miller & Levine Biology 8

STUDY
PLAY
energy
the ability to do work
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
an important compound used by cells for the storage and release of energy; consists of adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
a molecule that has 2 phosphate groups and stores less energy than ATP
photosynthesis
the process by which plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
heterotroph
an organism that obtains food by consuming other living things
autotroph
an organism that makes its own food
starch
a polymer of glucose used by plants for long term storage of energy
6 CO₂ + 6 H₂O---Light---> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂
the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis
visible spectrum
the wavelengths of light that can be seen by the human eye; ranges from red to violet
700 nm
the wavelength of red light
400 nm
the wavelength of violet light
pigment
a molecule that absorbs or reflects light; found within thylakoids
chlorophyll
the principle pigment in green plants that absorbs red and blue light
grana
stacks of thylakoids
thylakoid
region of the chloroplast where photosynthesis occurs, pigments are located, and light reactions occur
light reactions
photosynthetic reactions that require light and water and produce Oxygen (O2), ATP, and NADPH
photosystem
a cluster of pigment molecules in the photosynthetic membrane of thylakoids
Photosystem II
the first photosystem in green plants which absorbs best at 680 nm
680 nm
the wavelength at which Photosystem II absorbs the best
Photosystem I
the second photosystem in green plants which absorbs best at 700 nm
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier molecules where electrons are transferred along
hydrogen (ion)
an ion that is formed from the splitting of water which is released inside the photosynthetic membrane
concentration gradient
a source of energy caused by the positive charge of the inside of the thylakoid space and negative charge outside
stroma
the location of the formation of ATP and NADPH and dark reactions
dark reactions
photosynthetic reactions which do not require light, occur in the stroma, can be called the Calvin cycle, and produce high energy sugars from ATP and NADPH
Calvin cycle
alternative name for dark reactions, or light-independent reactions, named for Melvin Calvin
rubisco
The enzyme that "fixes" CO2 at the beginning of the dark reactions.
C4
type of plant that can capture even low levels of CO₂ and requires extra ATP
CAM
type of plant that admits air into leaves only at night to avoid water loss; forms organic acids within leaves to be used during day