24 terms

Cell Parts Vocabulary

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Centrioles
Short cylindrical structures that help organize the spindle fibers during cell division.
Chromosomes/Chromatin
Composed of DNA and proteins; found in the nucleus; tightly packed during cell division and dispersed during normal cell operations.
Cilia
Short hair-like structures that move fluid or secretions across the cell surface.
Cytoplasm
General term used to refer to the material inside the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus; divided into the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions.
Cytoskeleton
Internal protein framework of threadlike filaments and hollow tubes that give the cytoplasm flexibility and support; consists of microfilaments and microtubules.
Cytosol
Intracellular fluid; contains dissolved nutrients, ions, proteins, and waste products.
Endoplasmic reticulum, rough
Endoplasmic reticulum with attached ribosomes; participates in protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic reticulum, smooth
Endoplasmic reticulum without attached ribosomes; synthesizes phospholipids, cholesterol, and steroid hormones (in reproductive organs); synthesizes and stores glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver cells.
Flagellum
Long whip-like tail that propels the cell through fluid.
Golgi
Flattened membranous sacs; involved in the synthesis and packaging of secretions and enzymes for use within the cell; renews and modifies the cell membrane when secretory vesicles fuse with the cell membrane.
Lysosome
Filled with digestive enzymes; involved in the defense against disease and the removal of damaged or dead cells.
Microfilaments
Thinnest component of the cytoplasm; form a dense layer just inside the cell.
Microtubules
Hollow tubes built of the protein tubulin; primary component of the cytoskeleton; give the cell strength and rigidity; anchors the position of some organelles; form the spindle during cell division.
Microvilli
Small finger-shaped projections of the cell membrane; increase the surface area for absorption.
Mitochondria
Convert energy stored in glucose into ATP.
Nuclear envelope
Double membrane that surrounds the nuclear contents.
Nuclear pores
Openings in the nuclear envelope that allow materials to pass between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
Nucleolus
Manufacture the components of ribosomes.
Nucleus
Control center for cellular operations; contains the genetic material (DNA)
Ribosomes, bound
Found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum; manufacture proteins for use outside the cell.
Ribosomes, free
Found scattered throughout the cytoplasm; manufacture proteins for use within the cell.
Vacuole
Storage.
Vesicle, secretory
Transport Golgi products to the cell membrane for release from the cell.
Vesicle, transition
Transport endoplasmic reticulum products to the Golgi.
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