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Herb 302 Module 4: Demulcent Herbs
Terms in this set (89)
MOD 4 ---
True or False: Comfrey, chickweed, and marshmallow are all demulcent herbs.
Demulcents contain which properties that, in solution, will coat the mucous membranes?
Which herb can be used as a close substitute if marshmallow is not available
An overdose of the juice of which herb can cause colonic perforation, bloody diarrhea and kidney damage?
The term for a mucilaginous herb used topically is
There have been reports of _________ causing hepatotoxicity. For this reason, it should only be used externally.
Name one of the herbs that you study that is rich in mucilage and asparagine, which are responsible for it demulcent and emollient actions. You can answer using the latin or common names. Note that there are two possible correct answers for this question, either will be graded correct.
Either marshmallow or comfrey is correct here.
Select the correct therapeutic actions for hollyhock:
CORRECT all of the above
The fresh mucilaginous gel of _____________ has been used for many centuries for burns, wounds, abrasions, ulceration, rashes, and stings. You can answer using the latin or common names.
Chickweed cannot be eaten raw in salads or steamed.
Marshmallow thrives in a moist position and is easily propagated by seed or root division in what season?
True or False: For optimal effect, demulcents should not be combined with other herbs, but used alone.
The fresh mucilaginous gel of the aloe vera has been used for centuries to aid with damage (externally) to the what?
What does the Commision E Monographs state about the absorption of other drugs taken simultaneously with marshmallow?
They may be delayed.
True or False: Comfrey contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids that have been speculated to cause liver damage in regular users.
Describe the characteristics, therapeutic actions, and medicinal uses of chickweed Stellaria media.
Chickweed (Stellaria media) is known for having small white flowers which resemble the shape of a star, the stem often is of the ground "running" variety with fine hairs, and the leave are small-smooth pale green and ovate shaped. The therapeutic actions of this plant include alterative, antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, laxative, nutritive, pectoral, and refrigerant. Stellaria media offers many great medicinal uses, however it is quite common for use with many respiratory complaints. As well as being a useful skin tonic. It is also known to aid with abscess, asthma, colds, constipation, coughs, eczema, obesity, and ulcers.
_________ are high in mucilage and have a soothing and protective effect on any mucous membrane, including the linings of the bladder, stomach, intestines, and lungs.
When mixed with water the ___________ ____________form a slimy gel, which helps prevent irritants from getting to the membranes. This is similar to the body's own mucus layer. When used externally to soothe the skin they are called emollients. They are often used as a poultice for the skin.
______________ can be combined with most other herbs and are a vital addition to herbal formulas used for any internal irritation, inflammation, mucous membrane ulceration or gravel and stones in the urinary tract.
soothe, soften, and help heal any irritation of the mucous membranes. They contain slippery, mucilaginous properties, which in solution will coat the mucous membranes, shielding the tissues from irritating substances, and allowing
healing to take place.
___________ is the term for similar herbs used externally. Most demulcent herbs are also emollients, and when used in poultices they retain warmth and moisture while absorbing inflammation and infection.
The ________ __________ can be helped by the soothing action of demulcents to reduce dry coughs and sore throat.
When taken ___________ for the urinary system,
demulcents may be supportive in bladder inflammation, cystitis, and the presence of urinary sand or stones.
Comfrey Latin name
Symphytum officinale Family name
Symphytum officinale Collection
Comfrey root can be dug in the fall or early spring from well-established plants. Wash all the soil from the roots and split in half lengthwise. Dry by spreading on a rack in the shade or in an oven on low heat. The leaves can be gathered in the spring and early summer just as the plant is
coming into flower.
Symphytum officinale roots Active constituents
Comfrey root contains:
Alkaloids: Symphytine and echimidine
The roots and leaves also contain allantoin, a substance that speeds up the regeneration of damaged tissue both internally and externally. The tannin content provides an antiseptic and astringent action, while the mucilage and asparagine provide an anti-inflammatory healing action. Research has shown these substances absorb toxins and harmful bacteria in the body.
Symphytum officinale leaves Active constituents
Vitamins A, C, and B12
The mucilage and allantoin content are higher in the root than the leaves.
Symphytum officinale Therapeutic Actions
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, astringent, cell proliferant, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge,
laxative, nutritive, pectoral, sedative, styptic, tonic, and vulnerary
Symphytum officinale Medicinal Uses
Vital ingredient in a large number of herbal preparations and may be used wherever a mucilaginous or demulcent medicine is required.
Due to safety concerns, comfrey should only be used externally.
Abscesses, abrasions, allergies, asthma, back pain, bed sores, bleeding (external), blunt trauma, boils, bronchitis,
bruises, burns, catarrh, colds, constipation, coughs, cuts, diarrhea, fractures, hemorrhoids (bleeding), insect bites, laryngitis, ligaments (torn), nose bleeds, osteoarthritis, pleurisy, sprains, swellings, tonsillitis, ulcers (topical), varicose veins, and whooping cough (cold infusion only).
The chief healing agent in comfrey is allantoin, a cell proliferant that promotes granulation and formation of epithelial cells.
Comfrey also has a reputation as being an effective expectorant remedy for coughs and colds. The rosmarinic acid in comfrey has been shown to have in vitro anti-inflammatory action.
Symphytum officinale Precautions and contraindications
There have been a number of reports of human hepatotoxicity (liver damage caused by medicine) with ingestion of comfrey. Based on these studies with the concentrated alkaloids, scientists have speculated
that regular users of comfrey could sustain liver damage by taking two milligrams or more of this herb every day over a period of two years. This is particularly of concern for young children. Due to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content, AHPA classifies comfrey as for topical use only and not to be used during pregnancy or nursing. They recommend
limiting topical application to four to six weeks of daily use.
In small medicinal quantities as a tea, infusion, or cooked, the danger is minimal, as heat apparently inactivates the alkaloid.
Symphytum officinale Preparation and Dosage
All doses for adults. Use 3-4x a day unless stated otherwise.
Cold Extract: 2-4 tbsp
Decoction: 2-4 tbsp
Fluid Extract: 2-4 mL
Infusion: 4-8 tbsp
Powder: 1 tsp
Tincture: 4-6 mL
Symphytum officinale Drug & Supplement Interactions
Comfrey might have additive adverse effects on the liver when used with hepatotoxic drugs such as Tylenol, Cordarone, Tegretol, INH, Rheumatrex, Aldomet, and others.
Comfrey should not be used simultaneously with other herbs that contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids: alkanna, boneset, borage, butterbur, coltsfoot, fordet-me-not, gravel root, hemp agrimony, and hounds tongue.
Chickweed Latin name
Stellaria media Family name
Stellaria media Active constituents
Chickweed is an important herb because it contains a wide range of nutrients in addition to its medicinal constituents. It is high in:
• Vitamins C, A, and B
• The minerals calcium, iron, potassium, copper, sodium, phosphorus, and
The presence of both copper and iron is particularly useful, because the body requires a certain amount of copper to assimilate iron. Chickweed also contains a saponin, which accounts for its expectorant action, as well as some mucilage, resin, and glycosides, which have a mild antiseptic action when heated.
Stellaria media Therapeutic Actions
Alterative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiscorbutic, antiseptic (mild), antioxidant, appetite suppressant, antiviral, demulcent, diuretic (mild), emollient, expectorant, laxative, nutritive, pectoral, and refrigerant
Stellaria media Medicinal Uses
Stellaria media is indicated for use with: Abscesses, asthma, blood tonic, boils, bronchitis, colds, constipation, coughs, dermatitis, eczema, eye infections (inflammation, conjunctivitis), hemorrhoids, hoarseness, immune
support, inflamed skin, itching skin, psoriasis, rheumatic pains, scalds, skin eruptions, ulcers, ulcerated throat, and weight management. Chickweed is an excellent herbal remedy for a wide variety of respiratory complaints. It is also known for its effectiveness as a skin tonic where a skin
imbalance is manifesting as skin diseases such as eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis.
Stellaria media Precautions and contraindications
Chickweed is classified as safe if used appropriately153. The AHPA notes one alleged case of nitrate toxicity associated with chickweed; however, this may have been caused by harvesting from fields where synthetic fertilizers were used. This example illustrates the importance of gathering herbs from wild areas or organic farms.
Stellaria media Preparation and dosage
For adults. Use 3-4x a day unless stated otherwise.
Decoction: 4-8 tbsp
Fluid Extract: 1 1/2 mL
Infusion: 6-8 tbsp
Powder: 1 tsp
Tincture: 2-10 mL
Stellaria media Drug & Supplement Interactions
No information on the interactions with drugs and supplements was identified in the scientific or traditional literature.
Marshmallow Latin name
Althea Officinalis Family name
Althea officinalis Parts Used
Root, leaves, and flowers are all used
Althea officinalis Collection
Dig the roots of two-year-old plants in the fall. Wash the root and peel off the outer bark, cut up, and dry immediately. Gather the leaves in summer just as the
plant is coming into flower. The flowers can be gathered before they are fully blooming. They are delicate and will bruise easily, so harvest with care.
Althea officinalis Active Constituents
The root of marshmallow is particularly rich in:
• Urinic acid
The flowers contain some:
• Essential oil
The mucilage and asparagine are responsible for the demulcent and emollient actions. The mucilage also absorbs toxins and harmful micro-organisms in the system.
The urinic acid is said to be responsible for the cough suppressant action.
Althea officinalis Therapeutic Actions
Antitussive, antibacterial (Gram-positive only), anticomplement, antitussive, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, galactagogue, neuroprotective, nutritive, and vulnerary
Althea officinalis medicinal Uses
Althea officinalis is indicated for use with: Burns, constipation, coughs, cystitis, diarrhea, inflamed eyes, infections (Gram-positive), inflammation (internal and
external), kidney and bladder inflammation, lung tonic, milk supply165 (promotes), periodontal disease, skin abrasions, sore throats, stings, and swollen joints.
Marshmallow has been shown to have antibacterial effects against the bacteria responsible for periodontal disease, so a mouthwash made from marshmallow may be helpful.
Demulcents, or herbs that contain mucilage, have been used for many years for sore throats. They are not topical anesthetics but are soothing and relieve irritation. Herbs containing mucilage provide short-term relief of pain to people with acute pharyngitis. The effect does not last long—less than 30 minutes—so drink the tea frequently throughout the day.
Althea officinalis Precautions & Contraindications
Marshmallow is classed safe for use when used appropriately. The Commission E Monographs state that absorption of other drugs taken simultaneously may be delayed, but they do not cite a reference. The high level
of mucilage is most likely the cause for any delayed absorption.
Althea officinalis Preparation and Dosage
For adults. Use 3-4x a day unless stated otherwise.
Cold Extract: 2-4 tbsp
Decoction: 2-4 tbsp
Fluid Extract: 2-5 mL
Infusion: 4-6 tbsp
Poultice: Apply as necessary
Althea officinalis Drug & Supplement Interactions
Orally administered drugs should be taken one hour prior to, or several hours after, the marshmallow as it may slow absorption.
Hollyhock Latin name
Alcea rosea Family
Symphytum officinale Identifying characteristics
Stem: Erect, fleshy, 1 to 3-feet high, rough, angular, and hairy
Leaves: Ovate, large, hairy, prickling, green, with wavy margin; the leaves decrease in size higher up the stem
Flowers: Pale white, purple, and bell-shaped in dense clusters
Seed: Small and black
Root: Spindle-shaped, thick, and brownish-black bark; when cut, the root is a creamy white and oozes sticky mucilage
Taste: Sweet, mucilaginous, and faintly astringent
Stellar media Identifying Characteristics
Stem: Prostrate (horizontal) and weak, often running along the ground for a considerable distance, 1- to 2-feet long. Running up the stem is a line of very fine hairs that change position 90 degrees at each node.
Leaves: Small and ovate, about 1-inch long; opposite, pale green, smooth, on hairy stalks
Flowers: White, small, and shaped like a star
Taste: Slightly saline
Symphytum officinale Parts Used
Root (more powerful), rhizome, and leaves
Stellar media Parts Used
The flowering above-ground parts of the herb are used, both fresh and dried.
Althea Officinalis Identifying Characteristics
Stem: An herbaceous perennial herb with several fleshy stems up to 3 feet high, woody at the base and covered in a velvety down.
Leaves: Soft and velvety, ½ to 3-inches long, egg shaped, irregularly serrated, and covered on both sides with a soft down.
Flowers: Large, pink, blue pink or purplish
Root: Slender, ½ to 1-foot long, and grayish-white color
Taste: Sweetish and mucilaginous
Odor: Faint and aromatic
Alcea rosea Identifying Characteristics
Stem: An attractive biennial or perennial with a tall, hairy stem that grows up to 9 feet high. Dies down after flowering to a basal clump.
Leaves: Stalked, alternate up stem
Flowers: Single and double varieties, large petals that overlap in shades of purple, rose, white, or yellow. The flowers open at the bottom of the stem first.
Roots: roots are coarse-fibered and rather ligneous with a distinctively yellow fracture. They are occasionally used to adulterate the roots of marshmallow Althaea officinalis. The coarse-fibered and rather ligneous distinctively yellow
color distinguishes them under a microscope from the dark brown of A.officinalis.
Taste: Not unpleasant
Alcea rosea Parts Used
Flowers, leaves, and root
Alcea rosea Collection
The flowers are most commonly used and should be
gathered carefully just as they are fully opened. Dry
by spreading on racks in the shade.
Alcea rosea Active Constituents
Hollyhock flowers and leaves contain a high mucilage content and a similar range of action to marshmallow Althaea officinalis (L.)179. The flowers also contain
flavonoids and dihydroflavonols.
Alcea rosea Therapeutic Actions
Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antilithic, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, hepatic, hypoglycemic, and vulnerary
Alcea rosea Medicinal Uses
indicated for use with: Bladder inflammation, breast engorgement, burns, coughs, cystitis, inflammation (internal and external), kidney stones and inflammation, liver damage, lung tonic, pneumonia, sore throats, tennis elbow,
ulcers, and wounds. Has an affinity with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.Hollyhock is directly related to marshmallow A. officinalis and can be used interchangeably with that herb. The major difference is that hollyhock has woodier and tougher roots that are less palatable than marshmallow's softer roots. A tincture of the flowers has been found to be anti-inflammatory, making is useful for strains, pulled tendons, tennis elbow, ulcers, and other inflammatory conditions.
Alcea rosea Precautions & Contraindications
The Commission E Monographs state there are no known side effects or risks for hollyhock.
The AHPA lists it as safe for use when used appropriately.
The PDR for Herbal Medicines states that no health hazards are known in conjunction with appropriate use.
Alcea rosea Preparation and Dosage
Cold Extract: 4-8 tbsp
Fluid Extract: 2-4 mL
Infusion: 4-8 tbsp
Tincture: 5-10 mL
Alcea rosea Drug & Supplement Interactions
Orally administered drugs should be taken one hour prior to, or several hours after, hollyhock as it may slow absorption.
Slippery Elm Latin name
Ulmus fulva or Ulmus rubra
Ulmus fulva Family
Ulmus fulva Identifying Characteristics
Stem: Large, slow-growing deciduous tree, 45 to 60-feet high, with reddish-brown bark and wood. The bark is deeply furrowed.
Leaves: Large, 4 to 8-inches long; 2 to 4-inches wide. Oblong, unequally serrated, and rough on both sides, the leaves turn a lovely yellow in the fall.
Flowers: Small, appearing before the leaves, no stalk, in clusters at the end of the young shoots
Fruit: Silky yellow fruit from brown tufts
Taste: Slimy or mucilaginous
Odor: Strong and characteristic, similar to fenugreek
Ulmus fulva Parts Used
Ulmus fulva Collection
The bark should be gathered in spring. Gather from the young branches of trees at least 10 years old. Remove the cracked outer bark and dry the inner bark on mesh screens. Always remember the tree's survival and take the bark from only one side of a branch or trunk to avoid ring-barking the tree.
Ulmus fulva Active Constituents
The major constituents of slippery elm are mucilage:
• Uronic acid (36%)
• Methylpentose (25%)
• Pentose (6.5%)
It also contains:
• Oxalate acid
• Salicylic acid
• Capric acid
• Caprylic acid
• Decanoic acid
• Small amounts of starch, tannin, potassium, calcium, calcium oxalate, potash, manganese, zinc, and vitamin C
The indications of mucilage in herbal medicine include palliative care and reducing discomfort from tissue irritation via emollient (soothing) and demulcent (coating) effects. Tannins possess potent astringent properties and are used for inflamed, superficial skin diseases, and as a desiccant for weeping skin inflammations such as shingles and acute eczema. Tannins and flavonoids also display strong antioxidant activity and protection against reactive oxygen species.
Ulmus fulva therapeutic actions
Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent (mild), demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, nervine, nutritive, parturient, pectoral, and tonic.
Ulmus fulva Medicinal Uses
indicated for use with: Asthma, bronchitis, burns, childbirth, constipation, coughs, dermatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, eczema, gastritis, hiatus hernia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), insomnia, pneumonia, psoriasis, skin eruptions and sores, sore throat, stress, sunburn, thrush, ulcers, and vaginal irritation.
Slippery elm has the reputation of being one of the most valuable herbal demulcents available. It not only soothes and heals irritated and inflamed mucous membranes, but also will absorb excess mucus accumulated in the respiratory passages.
Topically, it can be used as a poultice for wounds, burns, ulcers, sores, and inflamed epithelial tissue. The powder can be made into a nourishing drink or porridge (similar to gruel), and is an excellent food for weak, sickly children or anyone who is convalescing. Demulcents, or herbs that contain mucilage, have been used for sore throats for
many years. They are not topical anesthetics, but are soothing and relieve irritation. Herbs containing mucilage provide short-term relief of pain to people with acute pharyngitis. The effect does not last long—less than 30 minutes—so drink the tea frequently throughout the day.
Slippery elm is traditionally used for the management of upper airway (laryngeal and pharyngeal) inflammation conditions.
Ulmus fulva Precautions & Contraindications
The AHPA lists slippery elm as safe for use when used appropriately. There is one report of slippery elm oleoresin causing dermatitis, and the pollen
is said to be an allergen.
Ulmus fulva Preparation & Dosage
For adults. Use 3-4x a day unless stated otherwise.
Decoction: 4-6 tbsp
Gruel: 6-8 tbsp
Infusion: 8-10 tbsp
Powder: 1 tsp
Tincture: 2-5 mL
Ulmus fulva Drug & Supplement Interactions
Theoretically, slippery elm may slow the absorption, and reduce serum levels of orally administered drugs, due to its mucilage content. There are no known or reported interactions with supplements.
Aloe Vera Latin name
Aloe vera barbadensis
Aloe is a well-known plant, but there are several species; some estimate as many as 400 or 500. So, in addition to A. vera, you may also commonly see Aloe barbadensis (Mill.) or Aloe vulgaris (Lam.) referred to, for example.
Aloe vera barbadensis Family
Aloe vera barbadensis Identifying Characteristics
Leaves: Aloe vera is a perennial plant with fleshy leaves that arise from the root. The edges have spiny teeth, and they become narrow towards the tip, ending in a point. They
are whitish-green on both sides.
Flowers: The flowers are yellow, tubular, and grow up to 3 centimeters (approximately 1 inch) long, with anthers and stigma protruding. The flowers are borne in cylindrical
racemes on a branched panicle up to 90 centimeters (or 35 inches) tall.
Root: Strong, fibrous roots
Fruit: Triangular capsule containing numerous seeds
Taste: Bitter, nauseating
Odor: Characteristic, disagreeable
Aloe Vera Parts used
Two parts of aloe are used:
1. The clear mucilaginous gel from the inner (parenchyma) leaf cells
2. The bitter yellow exudate (juice) from the outer (pericyclic) region of the leaves
Aloe Vera Collection
the cut leaf is more potent if used fresh. To fillet an aloe leaf, break or cut a piece from the plant and slice it lengthwise. Squeeze the mucilage from the leaf. The crude gel can be filtered and refrigerated to help preserve it.
Vitamin E oil, flaxseed Linum usitatissimum (L.) oil, citric acid, or lemon juice may also be blended with the gel to help stabilize it. To extract the juice, which contains the anthraquinone glycosides, cut large leaves at their base and hang them upside down so the juice drains freely from the cut. The gel will remain within the leaf and you can squeeze it out later
Aloe Vera Active Constituents
Aloe vera contains a number of anthraquinone glycosides and chrysophanic acid. These glycosides account for its purgative action. In fact, a new anthraquinone (3-
geranyloxyemodine), a compound that tends to have laxative effects, was isolated in 2014 from the dried leaves and gel of A. vera.
Aloe vera also contains:
• A volatile oil
• Antibiotic principles
• Wound-healing hormones
• A saponin
The combination of these substances is thought to be the cause of the gel's healing action. However, as with all herbs, the active constituents of A. vera will vary considerably depending on seasonal, climatic, and environmental variation.
Aloe Vera Therapeutic Actions
Analgesic, astringent, cathartic (the juice, especially), demulcent, emollient, laxative (depending on dose, the juice can be a purgative), vulnerary, and vermifuge
Aloe Vera Medicinal Uses
Aloe vera is indicated for use with: Abscesses, aching joints, acne, alopecia (hair loss), arthritis, bites, burns, constipation, dermatitis, digestive tonic, eczema, episiotomy, fungal infections, heartburn, hemorrhoids, infections, mouth
lesions, mouth ulcers, peptic ulcer, plaque reduction, psoriasis, rashes, rheumatism, ringworm, scalds, scarring, seborrhea, sinus, skin cancer, skin infections, sore throat, stings, stretch marks, sunburn, ulcers, worms, and wound
Aloe vera gel or mucilage has a wide variety of medicinal uses.
The fresh, mucilaginous gel has been used for many centuries to aid burns, wounds, abrasions, ulceration, rashes, and stings. It is particularly effective for burns, including sunburn and even third-degree burns. The juice or aloe extract is an effective cathartic, stimulant laxative, purgative, and vermifuge.
Aloe Vera Precautions & Contraindications
Aloe Vera Gel
When used topically, A. vera gel may delay wound healing following a laparotomy or cesarean delivery. However, excessive internal use is not recommended for anyone with a compromised liver. In one case, in an attempt to lose weight, a patient took 30 milliliters of an over-the-counter A. vera gel extract powder twice a day for approximately one month. The patient visited a hospital with a week's history of abdominal discomfort,nausea, and mild fever and was determined to have toxic hepatitis induced by aloe.
This suggests that functional health foods containing A. vera should be considered a possible cause of liver injury in hypersensitive individuals. Further, in 2015 report, a patient with chronic liver disease who ingested drinkable A. vera (150 milliliters) for 10 days also demonstrated hepatotoxicity.
People with compromised liver should avoid products containing A. vera.
Aloe Vera Juice
Do not use A. vera juice during pregnancy; lactation; with any intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain of unknown origins, or any inflammatory condition of the intestine (including appendicitis, colitis, Crohn's disease, or irritable bowel syndrome); hemorrhoids; kidney dysfunction; menstruation; in children younger than 12; or for more than eight to 10 days. Overdose of the juice can cause colonic perforation, bleeding diarrhea, and kidney damage. An overdose can be as little as one gram per day for several days.
Aloe Vera Preparation & Dosage
For adults. Use 3-4x a day unless stated otherwise.
Gel: Apply topically as required or take 1 to 2½ tablespoons orally, three to four times daily. Ensure that you obtain pure gel, preferably from the fresh plant. Many products sold as A. vera gel contain fillers and preservatives.
Extract (Juice): Drink 5-10 mL
Powder: Apply Topically
Aloe Vera Drug & Supplement Interaction
Since aloe has cathartic properties, it should be avoided when taking diuretic and stimulant laxative drugs.
You should not use it concurrently with a cardiac glycoside drug due to the risk of adverse reactions caused by potassium depletionAlso, do not use it if you take warfarin as it may cause diarrhea, which may potentiate the effects of the drug. Do not use concurrently with antidiabetic drugs as preliminary clinical research suggests it may lower blood glucose levels and have an additive effect
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