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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Study Guide
Terms in this set (46)
What is ATP and its use?
-ATP is compounds used by cells to store and release energy.
How is energy released by ATP?
-Consists of adenine, 5-carbon sugars called ribose, and 3 phosphate groups.
Why is ATP described as a charged battery?
-Because it stores small amounts of groups in the cell's energy by adding phosphate groups to ADP molecules, producing ATP.
What types of carbon-based molecules (organic molecules) are the source for most of the energy in the foods you eat?
Where is the energy stored in carbs, lipids, and proteins (organic molecules)?
-Between the carbon bonds.
What type of organic compounds store the most energy? the least?
Write the chemical formula that represents photosynthesis.
-Formula: 6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6H1206 + 602
-(Put a 6 in front of everything but glucose to make the equation equal)
What are the raw materials and where are they produced for Photosynthesis?
-Raw materials: water, carbon dioxide
-Produced in glucose and oxygen-products.
How is an autotroph different than a heterotroph?
-Autotroph: Producers that are organisms that can convert sunlight into energy.
-Heterotroph: Consumers that eat plants or other organisms for energy.
Compare glucose and ATP in terms of how they are used by living organisms and how they are produced.
-Carbon dioxide created glucose and glucose created energy in your body to make ATP.
-ATP breaks down ADP which is energy in your body.
-Without glucose there would be no ATP.
Draw the structure of ATP and explain how its structure is important to how it provides energy.
-Cells release energy from ATP when the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups are broken.
What molecule is ATP converted to when it is broken to release energy?
-ATP is converted to ADP when it is broken to release energy.
Draw a chloroplast and label these parts: inner and outer membrane, thylakoid, stroma, grana. Make sure to indicate where the light dependent reactions occur and where the light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) occur.
Why are the reactions that occur in the Calvin Cycle explained to be light independent?
-Because the Calvin Cycle occurs whether light is present or not.
What is the visible spectrum?
-The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Pigments are compounds that absorb light. What color light does chlorophyll absorb best? least? How does this explain why the leaves and stems of most plants appear green?
-Best: Red and blue light.
-Least: Green light.
-Green light is not absorb, as a result the green is reflected by the chloroplast, rather than absorb, and the plant appears green.
What is an accessory pigment? Give an example and explain why we can not observe these accessory pigments as easily as chlorophyll except in the fall.
-Ex: yellow, orange, red
-Because in the fall green is not as abundant so it does not appear too often.
What happens during the process of Photosynthesis?
-Autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to produce high-energy carbohydrates (sugars/starches) that can be used in food.
What are the two important reactions that happen in Photosynthesis?
-1. Light dependent reaction (depends on light)
-2. Light independent reaction/Calvin Cycle (does not depend on light)
Why is it often said that the "light reactions drive the light independent reactions" (Calvin Cycle)?
-Because from the light dependent oxygen, ATP, and NADPH is produced which is needed for the light independent to produce glucose.
Where does the light reactions take place? The Calvin Cycle?
What is the first event in the light reaction of photosynthesis?
-Chlorophyll absorbs energy from the sunlight.
What molecule is split when chlorophyll absorbs light and its electrons become energized and excited?
When water molecules are split in the light reaction, explain the "fate" of each atom: O (oxygen), H (hydrogen and the energized electrons), H (hydrogen).
-O (oxygen): released into air.
-H (hydrogen and the energized electrons): electron transport chain to make NADH.
-H (hydrogen): stays behind till it has enough energy for ATP.
When water is split, what two energy molecules are produced?
What are the two energy molecules produced in the light reactions used for?
-Used for the light independent reaction (calvin cycle).
Hydrogen with the two energized electrons does down the electron transport chain to produce molecule NADPH. AtTP, the other energy molecule produced in the light reaction, is produced by Chemiosmosis. Explain that process which involves the other hydrogen that did not get passed along to the electron transport chain.
-Extra ones build...creates flow...diffuses across thylakoid membrane (into stroma)...creates energy...adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP.
What are the raw materials for the Calvin Cycle? Where does each raw material come from?
-Raw materials: carbon dioxide, ATP, NADPH
-Materials come from the light dependent reaction.
What is the main product of the Calvin Cycle? Why is the energy required in the Calvin Cycle and what provides the needed energy for that?
-Main product is glucose.
-Because energy is needed to bond carbon atoms together which is provided from ATP and NADPH that comes from the light dependent reaction.
What factors could affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Define cellular respiration.
-The process that release energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Write the chemical formula that represents cellular respiration.
-Formula: C6H1206 + 602 -> 6C02 + 6H20 + ENEERGY (ATP)
-(Same formula as photosynthesis but flipped around)
Explain what happens in glycolysis.
-3 stages: Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle (citric acid), Electron transport change.
-Look at processes notes for descriptions.
What are the raw materials and products of glycolysis? (2,2,2,)
-Raw materials: glucose, 2 ATP
-Products: Net 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvic acids
After glycolysis is completed, what determines whether the pyruvic acid molecules will follow an aerobic or anaerobic pathway?
-The amount of oxygen.
-No oxygen: Anaerobic
What happens to pyruvic acid if there is no oxygen available?
-Goes through Anaerobic.
-Body converts it into lactic acid or carbon dioxide and alcohol (yeast cells).
What are the two types of fermentation and how are they different from each other?
-Fermentation: when no oxygen is available, changes one thing into another, after glycolysis.
-Alcoholic: turns pyruvic acids into CO2 and alcohol for yeast cells.
-Lactic: turns pyruvic acids into lactic acid for humans.
Compare the amount of ATP made in an anaerobic pathway compared to an aerobic pathway.
-Anaerobic: 2 ATP'S.
-Aerobic: Up to 38 ATP'S.
Where does glycolysis occur?
What 2 molecules enter the Citric Acid (Kreb's Cycle)?
-2 pyruvic acids
What is removed from pyruvic acid when it enters the cycle? Where does that product go?
-1 carbon ---> released into air as CO2.
-2 carbon items are left ---> turned into citric acid.
What are the products of the Kreb's cycle for each pyruvic acid, for both pyruvic acid?
-3C02: released into air.
-FADH: energy molecule, goes on e.t.c.
-3 NADH2: energy molecule, goes on e.t.c.
-(Double for the whole glucose molecule).
What is the function of the electron transport chain?
-Turns carrier molecules into ATP.
Each molecule of FADH2 is converted to how many ATP?Each molecule of NADH is converted to how many ATP?
-FADH2: 2 ATP'S
-NADH: 3 ATP'S
How many ATP are produced if glucose goes through glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle, and the Electron transport chain? Make sure to tell where the ATP was made.
-36 to 38 ATP'S.
-Glycolysis: 2 ATP.
-Kreb's Cycle: 2 ATP for each glucose.
-Electron Transport Cycle: 36 ATP (when perfect).
What does glycolysis require in order to get the process started?
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