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According to John Kotter, leadership (in contrast to management) entails:

setting a direction for the organization.

Kotter suggests that there are two distinct, yet complimentary systems of action in organizations:

Leadership and Management

Zaleznik's thinking on leaders as distinct personalities, leaders and managers differ along 4 different dimensions of personality. Three of the four are:

Attitudes towards goals. Relationships with others. A sense of self.

Zaleznik's distinction between leaders and managers having contrasting personalities is similar to the distinction made between:

Transformational and Transactional leaders

Trait leader theories focus on Intelligence, Personality Characteristics and Physical attributes but does not focus on:

Situational Awareness

T/F: Findings on traits as a basis for explaining leader effectiveness are neither strong nor uniform.


Trait theories of leadership attempt to focus on a leaders:

Physical attributes, Personality and Ability

The major difference between trait and behavioral theories of leadership is:

Trait theories emphasize personality and ability attributes versus actions and abilities.

When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders:

Do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making.

All of the following are characteristics of Autocratic Leadership except: Strongly controlling work relationships, Explicit work orders and minimal follower flexibility in application of work rules, Highly structured work situation and close supervision and Employee centered.

Employee Centered

The most pronounced consequence of Laissez-faire leadership tends to be:

Chaos in the work environment.

The important underlying behaviors of the Ohio State leadership studies are:

Consideration and Initiating Structure

What two behaviors are NOT considered to be behaviors of initiating structure:

Encouraging mutual respect and Interpersonal trust.

The major difference between the Michigan approach to leadership and the Ohio approach was that:

Ohio studies see the dimensions as COEXISTING where the Michigan studies see them as MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE.

An important conclusion of the Ohio State study was that _____ _____ was a more important determinant of leader behaviors than was Training.

Leadership Climate

According to the Michigan studies on leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules/regulations is likely the result of:

Production-oriented style.

According to the Michigan studies on leadership regarding the emotional climate of the work situation, _____ may be the result of either autocratic or democratic leadership styles:


Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid identifies the country club manager as someone who:

Creates a pleasing, happy work environment and applies minimal supervision.

The major difference between the Ohio State and Leadership grid research is the Leadership Grid includes:

Attitudinal overtones and is more normative and prescriptive.

In the Leadership Grid, the manager who exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired would be consistent with what position on the grid:


The impoverished manager is one who exerts:

Just enough effort to avoid being fired.

In the Leadership Grid, the manager with a high concern for production and a low concern for people would be in what position on the grid:


According to House's path-goal theory, two variables used to determine the most appropriate leader behavior are:

Follower Characteristic and Task Characteristic

T/F: A relationship-orientation is NOT one of the leader behavior styles one can choose from when using the path-goal theory of leader effectiveness.


The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness by Robert House is based on the:

Expectancy theory of motivation.

The path-goal theory assumes that leaders adapt their behavior and style to fit:

the Characteristics of the work environment and Followers.

According to a Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model, commanders who acted consistently with the model were more successful in accomplishing their goals, suggesting that:

Leaders that lack information and sharing and consensus building resulted in serious disadvantage.

According to a Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model, Authoritative, Democratic and Consultative are possible appropriate decision-making strategies where as _____ would not be:


The Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model helps leaders and managers know when to have employees:

participate in the decision-making process.

The key situational variable of the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model is:

Maturity Level of employees.

In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model, the leadership style most appropriate with very mature followers is a:

Delegating Style

The telling style of leadership in the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model entails:

Low concern of relationships and strong initiating structure.

In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model, maturity is determined by a follower's ability and willingness to:

Accept responsibility for completing work.

The leadership approach which recognizes that leaders may form different relationships with followers is the:

LMX theory

The basic idea behind leader-member exchange theory is leaders form two groups of followers:

In-groups and Out-groups

Recent research on LMX theory has revealed what surprising result:

that increased communication between supervisors and out-group members leads to lower performance ratings.

These leaders inspire and stimulate followers to high performance levels:

Transformational Leaders

Transformational leaders have been found to inspire followers to:

Perform beyond expectations.

Charismatic leadership rests greatly with:

Referent Power

Charismatic leadership has great potential for high levels of achievement but also has risks of:

Destructive courses of action.

The positive face of charismatic leadership is most strongly associated with:

Socialized Power Motivation.

The ability of a leader to create a vision and convince other to become a part of it, even skeptics, is known as:

The Reality-Distortion Field

A multidimensional construct that includes transformational, charismatic or transactional leadership as the situation might demand is known as:

Authentic Leadership

Which of the following is not a characteristic of Authentic Leaders: Optimism, Resilience, Benevolence, and High Levels of Hope.


Emotional intelligence is made up of competencies that include:

Self-awareness, Adaptability and Empathy

In reference to emotional intelligence and leadership, emotional intelligence can be learned through:

Honest Feedback

This refers to the degree to which employees believe their boss trusts them:

Felt Trustworthiness

Research on male and female leaders showed that women tend to use:

a more people-oriented style that is more inclusive and empowering.

Female leaders act out leadership as:

an individualized, interpersonal process.

Which of the following has not been extensively researched: Leadership or Follower-ship:


Who would follower motivational training be LEAST successful for:

Alienated Followers

These are followers who tend to be passive but are capable of independent and critical thinking:

Alienated Followers

Dimensions used to classify followers include:

active/passive, critical/uncritical thinking and independent/dependent.

With additional training and the development of a good supervisor-subordinate relationship, the alienated follower could most easily become a:

Dynamic Follower

One conclusion that was NOT drawn by the text authors concerning the role and importance of leadership is that:

"Good leaders are not likely to be good followers"

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