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Terms in this set (81)
What is BPD?
What are the 4 structures that must be seen for BPD measurement to be correct?
Falx, CSP, 3rd ventricle, Thalamus
The BPD is measured from _____ to ______?
outer cranium to inner cranium
What is OFD?
The OFD is measured from ____ to _____?
fetal occiput to forehead
T/F- OFD is measured outer to outer?
What four structures must be seen for measurement to be accurate?
Falx, CSP, 3rd ventricle, Thalamus
Can OFD be measured on same image of BPD?
This measurement is calculated by the computer program using the BPD and OFD.
What is brachiocephalic?
head too wide
What is dolicocephalic?
head too narrow
What 3 anatomical landmarks are needed to take an abdominal circumfrence?
transvere fetal spine, fluid filled stomach on fetal left and umbilical vein within the fetal liver
T/F-The AC can be elipse or traced from outer to outer.
All long bones are measured from ___ to ___?
end to end
What lon bones are included in fetal biometry?
humerus, ulna, femur and tibia
For the femur and humerus you measure the ____ extremity?
Long bones must be _____ for an accurate measurement.
Always document ____ bones in each arm/leg.
If there is a question of dysplasia what 2 bones should also be measured?
radius and fibula
Observing fetal sucking/swallowing, turning of head and limb movement is all considered what?
How can you document fetal breathing?
Watch for kidneys o move up and down with respiration or turn on color and wach air come out of nose.
Fetal heart occupies ____ of the fetal chest in a transverse view.
The apex should be pointing towards the fetal ____?
Can you see all 4 chambers? Outflow tracts?
Yes, they both need to be identified.
A small amount of dilation of the central sinus of he kidney is okay as long as it is less than what?
A full bladder on a fetus indicates what?
At least 1 kidney is functioning
A fetus who is below the 10th percentile in estimated fetal weight is...
When patients leak fluid slowly and are unaware of the amount loss is associated with?
What is PROM?
premature rupture of membranes
When can PROM happen?
Anytime before the onset of a full term delivery
Oligo may be associated with what?
Is IUGR associated with Oligo?
It is difficult to differentiate symmetrical IUGR from incorrect dates with oligo in patients who?
have had poor maternal care or no early u/s
What is symmetrical IUGR?
All baby parts are small
What is symmetrical IUGR associated with?
maternal chronic illness and drug use
Is Asymmetic IUGR is also assocaited oligo?
The most common asymmetric IUGR will exhibit what?
A small AC
What 2 body part will still measure normal with asymmetric IUGR?
Head and femur
T/F- Asymmetric IUGR is associated with placental problems.
What is femur sparing IUGR?
All parameters are small except for the femur length- no known etiology
When hydrocephalus is present the head will be ____ than normal, resulting in an abnormally high _________?
larger, head to belly ratio
What percent of all IUGR fetuses have congenital anomalies?
Examination of what is most important in IUGR?
To rule out a source of oligo you look at what first?
fetal bladder and kidneys
T/F- The placenta may be large with IUGR.
False- its small with IUGR
Advanced grade of the placenta with IUGR may be seen when?
Always image the cord insertion to the ____ and _____.
fetus and placenta
What is AFI and what does it measure?
amniotic fluid index, measures fluid volume
How do you measure AFI?
seperate uterus into 4 quadrants, measure greatest pocket in each quadrant making sure measurement does not contain body parts or cord. Add 4 measurements together.
If the largest pocket in entire uterus is less than 2cm in size it is called?
With quantifying oligo you follow _____ by doing an ___?
fluid changes, AFI
What is a BPP?
When does a IUGR require a BPP?
During a BPP the fetus receives 2 points for each of the following:
Reactive NST, fetal motion, fetal tone, fetal breathing, AFI
Causes for large for dates include:
Polyhydramnios, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, mass, large placenta
Polyhydramnios is associated with anomalies of the ________, _________ and _______.
GI tract, Skeletal and CNS
Polyhydramnios is also associated with what?
gestational diabetes and multiple pregnancies
What is amnionicity?
number of sacs
What is chorionicity?
number of placentas
What is monozygotic?
A single zygote divides to form identical twins
What is dizygotic?
Two zygotes form fraternal twins
A fetus that weighs over 4000 grams (8.8 pounds) which is in the 90th percentile at birth is called?
Macrosomia can be caused by what?
What tends to be the largest part of the fetus?
stomach- measure AC carefully
With multiple gestations you need to determine what?
monochorionic or dichorionic
If an intersac membrane is missing with multiple gestations this is associated with what?
Look for _____ cords when scanning multiple gestations.
What do Di Di twins have?
2 chorions, 2 amnions, 2 placentas
What do Mo Di twins have?
2 sacs, 1 placenta
What do Mo Mo twins have?
1 sac, 1 placenta- higest risk of anomalies
Fetal hydrops is the presence of any two of the following:
Fetal edema, placental enlargement, poly, fetal ascites, fetal pleural effusion, fetal pericardial effusion
Non immune hydrops is not a result of meternal Rh incompatibility and can be casued by :
placental tumors, cardiac and chest anomalies, viral diseases, parvovirus, chromosomal anomalies
LUS fibriods are clinically important becasue they can obstruct what?
Fibroids should not be mistaken for what?
Placental attachment to a fibroid uterus may cause difficulity with what?
exchange of nutrients
What is absent with fetal death?
The double outline with sonolucent center surrounding the head associated with fetal death is called?
Extreme flexion or extension associated with fetal death is called?
Unnatural fetal position
What is Spaulding's sign?
overlapping of skull bones
What is Robert's sign?
Gas development in abdomen
Echos within amniotic fluid- pieces of skin that break off and float in fluid is associated with fetal death is called?
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