Freshwater

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

fresh water
water containing <1000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, often salt, "almost salt free"
surface water
water contained in lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, wetlands, some can be saline
ground water
water stored in pores and cracks in underground rock layers
cycling
limited water supply but continuous movement
watershed
the unit of water - land interactions
watershed processes
precipitation, freezing, infiltration, percolation, runoff
^ ^
creates ground water
river discharge
volume of water passing a particular point over time , hydrographs show discharge over time
unsaturated zone
air present in spaces between particles
saturated zone
usually what is termed "groundwater"
aquifers
may take up to 1000 years to fill, depleted due to over extraction like oil
streams and rivers
flow of surface water within a channel cause by gravity, stream vs river just based on size no scientific distinction
ponds
shallow enough to have rooted vegetation across
lakes
deeper and larger > vertical temperature gradient (stratification)
thermocline
distinction between warm and cold water
epilimnion
upper
hypolimnion
deeper
benthic
bottom
longitudinal zones
littoral zone (near shore), limnetic zone (open water)
wetlands
land that is periodically or permanently saturated
freshwater use
residential, industrial, and agricultural
renewable water resource
water is supplied at least as fast as it is used
ex. most rivers and lakes
nonrenewable water resource
water is supplied more slowly than it is used
ex. most groundwater
consumptive water use
water is lost from the local water cycle after use or is too contaminated for further use
ex. agricultural use, industrial use, and pollution
non consumptive water use
water is returned to the local water cycle after use
ex. many residential and some commercial uses
physical water scarcity
just not physically enough
supply < demand
economic water scarcity
sufficient water but inadequate systems to distribute/ purify water
water pollutants
-biological disease causing microorganisms
-toxic chemicals: metals, pesticides, petroleum products
-nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus
why are chemical pesticide such a serious problem?
biological magnification: toxic substances stored in fat that is magnified in food webs