Chapter 10 (Interest Groups) - AP Government Herman
Terms in this set (35)
an organization of people with shared policy goals
politics is mainly a competition among groups
societies are divided among class lines and the upper class will rule
groups are so strong that the the government is weakened
a network of groups within the American political system that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas.
Interest group liberalism
government's excessive deference to groups, all pressure group demands are legitimate and that the job of the government is to advance all of them
Single issue group
groups that have a narrow interest, tend ot dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups
people who might be interest group members because they share a common interest
that part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join
something of value (money, a tax write-off, prestige, clean air, and so on) that cannot be withheld from a group member
the problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the group's activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the more serious the problem.
Olson's law of large groups
Advanced by Mancur Olson, a principle stating that "the large the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of collective good"
Goods (such as information, publications, travel discounts, and group insurance rates) that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues
Political Action Committee. Political funding vehicles created by the 1974 political campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create this and Federal Election Commission, which will meticulously monitor the groups expenditures
political-action committee that is allowed to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money from corporations, unions, individuals and associations.
Political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level (or for generic party leadership) unlike money that goes to the campaign for a particular candidate, such party donations are not subject to contribution limits
Political contributions given directly to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed
someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decision marker with the hope of influencing his decision
a law or set of laws made by a government
An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.
direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for the candidates, and some form political action committees
Amicus curiae briefs
legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs and the formal parties. these briefs attempt to influence a court's decision
Class action suits
lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated
a provision found in some collective bargaining agreements requiring all employees of a business to join the union within a short period, usually 30 days, and to remain members as a condition of employment
Right to work law
A state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs. State right-to-work laws were specifically permitted by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947.
all people born in the United States are to be considered citizens regardless of race; equal protection clause and due process are established in this amendment
Equal protection clause
clause in the 14th amendment that requires that states provide citizens "equal protection of the laws"
Due process clause
Part of the 14th amendment guaranteeing that persons cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property by the United States or state government without due process of law
Public interest lobbies
political organization whose goals will principally benefit nonmembers. According to Jeffery Berry, they seek "a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership or activities of the organization"
Those already holding office
American Association of Retired Persons; Nationwide organization for people over 50 that offers discount drug purchases, health & auto insurance, publications, & other activities.
The American Civil Liberties Union. It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
National Rifle Association a powerful lobby that advocates the right to own and bear arms and rejects any gun regulation by the government.
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations joined in 1955 - Largest labor organization in US; from 1955 until 2005, the member unions represented nearly all unionized workers in the United States. In recent years, has concentrated its political efforts on lobbying in Washington and the state capitals, and on "GOTV" (get-out-the-vote) campaigns and in major elections.
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