BJ American Republic Chapter 8
Establishment of the New Government
Terms in this set (51)
Give three reasons Washington had for being solemn on his inauguration day.
1. The nation didn't have money.
2. Our army and navy were weak.
3. The population was small
4. other nations were unfriendly
5. a new gov't had to be established with few guidelines
What were the four departments of government that Washington established? Who was head of each?
1. Dept of State--Thomas Jefferson
2. Treasury Dept.--Alexander Hamilton
3. War Dept.--Henry Knox
4. Justice Dept--Edmund Randolph
Describe the two ways in which Hamilton and Jefferson viewed America's future.
Hamilton--strong central government, urban and industrial nation
Jefferson--more power at state level, rural and agricultural nation
List the four parts of Hamilton's financial program.
1. Impose taxes to raise $
2. Repay money borrowed during the Revolution
3. Federal government to pay off debts of the states
4. Establish a national bank
What brought about the first political parties in the United States?
Disagreement over Hamilton plan
What precedent did Washington set with his handling of the Whiskey Rebellion? Why was the precedent important?
He showed that the federal government would enforce laws; Important because it kept the country from turning to violence
Where did Anthony Wayne's forces defeat a band of Indians? Give two reasons why the Indians had attacked the white settlers.
Fallen Timbers in Ohio; 1. to fight for their lands 2. to get help from the British to stop the Americans
What official position did the United States take toward European conflict in 1793?
to be neutral in foreign wars (Neutrality Proclamation)
How did Hamilton and Jefferson differ on the French Revolution? Who do you think was right, and why?
Hamilton: stay out of the conflict
Jefferson: support the revolution
What Frenchman tried to alienate Washington from the American people by recruiting Americans to fight?
Edmond Charles Genet
For what two reasons did Britain seize American ships and impress American sailors?
1. Americans were trading with Britain's enemy, France, and we disagreed about the rights neutral countries might have at sea.
2. British sailors were jumping ship to work on American ships for more money and better treatment.
What two issues were settled by the Pinckney Treaty, and with what country was that treaty made?
Gave US right of deposit at New Orleans and made the 31st parallel of latitude the southern boundary of the US.;Spain
How did Washington's example contribute to liberty and the peaceful transfer of power in America?
He voluntarily gave up power after 2 terms.
When he left office, in what three areas did Washington advise the use of caution?
1. Avoid disputes between parties
2. Stay out of foreign politics
3. Stay out of debt
Name the Federalist and the Democratic Republican candidates for president in the election of 1796.
Federalist: John Adams, Thomas Pinkney
Democratic Republican: Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr
What was unusual about the outcome of the election of 1796?
Adams opponent, Thomas Jefferson, became his vice president
How did the French react to Jay's treaty with England?
Their navy raided American ships, they seized and threatened American sailors, and they refused to accept our minister to France, Charles Pinckney.
What incident led America to prepare for the war against France? Name three steps Americans took to defend themselves.
the XYZ affair
1. built a navy
2. tripled size of army
3. Washington was recalled as commander-in-chief
What agreement averted war between America and France? What French leader sought this peace settlement?
Convention of 1800; Napolean Bonaparte
What did the Sedition Act say? Why did the Democratic-Republicans feel this law was unfair?
Anyone who said anything false or malicious about the government or its officials could be fined $2000 and imprisoned up to 2 years.; They thought the law violated their First Amendment rights.
Under the nullification theory, what power would the states have?
The power to declare void any federal law within it's boundaries.
Whom did Adams nominate to be the chief justice of the Supreme Court?
Who were the "midnight judges"?
They were 58 judges appointed by Adams on the night before he left office.
What formal ceremony begins a president's term?
What group of hand-picked advisors works closely with the president?
Which cabinet member designed a new plan for America's finances? Why did some Americans oppose the new financial plan?
Alexander Hamilton; They didn't like a national bank or the national government paying off state debt.
What was the significance of the Whiskey Rebellion?
It showed we would be a law-abiding country, not violent.
What two political parties emerged during Washington's presidency?
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
What defeat brought the Indians of Ohio to a peace conference?
the defeat at Fallen Timbers, Ohio
Did Washington support or oppose neutrality for the US?
What method did the British use to force American sailors to serve in their navy?
Which American diplomat made a treaty with Spain? Who made one with Britain? Which treaty was more popular?
Pinckney; Jay; Pinckney's was more popular
What was America's reaction to the XYZ affair? Which French leader settled the conflict?
We prepared for war agains France.; Napolean
What purpose did the Federalists have in promoting the Alien and Sedition Acts?
to harm the Republican Party and keep it from gaining power
How did John Marshall strengthen the Supreme Court?
He unified the court by holding private meetings and having just one majority opinion written to support their decision.
What process did John Marshall use to declare a federal law unconstitutional?
ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office
a group of advisors to the president
A tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country
a bank chartered by the federal government
a 1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States
General who defeated Native American at Battle of Fallen Timbers
where Anthony Wayne defeated the indians and their allies
(1793) a statement made by President George Washington that the United States would not side with any of the nations at war in Europe following the French Revolution
Edmond Charles Genet
came to Charleston, South carolina, to set up a base for French land and sea operations against Spain and England
a troublesome French diplomat
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
The Jay Treaty
treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the western frontier (1) pay for recently confiscated American ships (1) trade with British India (1) and use ports in the West Indies (1) but did not address the issue of British impressment of American sailors (1)
Also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo, this 1795 treaty established commercial relations between Spain and the United States, granted the United States free navigation of the Mississippi River (Right of deposit) through Spanish territory, and fixed the boundaries of Louisiana and Florida.
The first Vice President
Who won the election of 1796? What was unusual about it?
John Adams - President
Thomas Jefferson- Vice President
They were from different parties
Judiciary Act of 1789
provided details for establishing the Supreme Court, district courts and circuit courts