PSY4391 Mid-term Review
Terms in this set (38)
Why can psychologists claim that psychology is one of the oldest scholarly disciplines as well as one of the newest?
-been traced back to the fifth century (philosophical discussion surrounding nature and behavior)
-modern experimental psychology was not founded until 1879
Define: Personalistic Conceptions of scientific history
Highlight the progress in a field due to the contributions of unique individuals
ex.) We all know Darwin but tend to forget Wallace
Define: Naturalistic conceptions of scientific history
highlights the ideas and research shaped by forces other than just one "great" individual
Which conception of history (natural vs. personalistic) best supports cases of simultaneous discovery?
Naturalistic: because focus is not on one individual.
simultaneous discovery generally means __________________ is happening
Define: internal histories
written by psychologists and tend to leave out any outside forces on history
Define: external histories
highlights outside forces that influenced the shaping of a psychological theory
An internal history of cognitive psychology would say:
We have been thinking about cognition ever since the age of philosophers, so that idea alone has developed into its own field
An external history of cognitive psychology would say:
the rise of cognitive psychology also rose with the rise of computer usage due to the interest in how input and output worked
use of modern knowledge to assess someone from 100s of years ago
Why is presentist thinking dangerous?
It undermines scientific process that went into discovery
-the whole universe is like a great machine
-originated from physics, called "natural philosophy"
give an example of applied mechanism to the body?
Hobbes felt like the mind was a purely mechanistic, and was thus completely explicable in terms of the effects of perception and the pursuit of desire
How did Descartes describe innate ideas?
things we know to be true as a result of logical analysis (no input from senses required)
How did Descartes describe derived ideas?
concepts that are a result of an experience
In Descartes model of the nervous system, how did the mind and body interact?
His interactionist perspective stated that the mind influenced the body and the body influenced the mind
through Descartes interactionist perspective how would he describe the mind and the body?
mind = soul = a physical substance that had a place in the body
body- can be described by mechanical laws
What is the relevance of the pineal gland in the interactionist perspective of Descartes?
He thought that because there was only one pineal gland, as opposed to a usual pair of brain structures, that must have been where mind-body interaction occured
What was Descartes flaw in choosing a part of the brain as a point of communication between the mind and body?
He didn't solve anything by pin-pointing where he thought interaction occurred. rather, he reiterated the question of how mind-body interaction occurs
How would Locke describe primary and secondary qualities of matter?
primary qualities- qualities that exist in an object regardless of our perceptions (shape, size, motion are objective)
secondary qualities- qualities that are not inherent but did depend on own perceptions (color, taste, smell are subjective)
How would Berkeley describe primary and secondary qualities of matter?
primary qualities- dont exist!
secondary qualities- understanding of the world is the result of our perceptual experiences, all knowledge is subjective!
Describe Berkeley's concept of subjective idealism
the concept that we can never know for sure the nature of the world, only what we experience
Why did Berkeley's subjective idealism attack mechanism?
it asserted that even our own knowledge and perceptions could be flawed, basically meaning the idea that the world could never be studied and understood through an objective standpoint
What are Hume's main laws of association?
resemblance, contiguity, and cause-effect
ex.) healed wound-> look at wound = lots of associations
What did Hume believe about cause-and-effect
we could never be certain about causes or effects
What were Hartley's main laws of association?
contiguity- the strength of associations depended on the amount of repetition.
complex ideas were constructed of individual parts, if elements experienced frequently enough associations will be made
Whose ideas (Hume vs. Hartley) about cause and effect are more relevant for modern psychology?
Hume's- by looking for "causes" other psychologists followed his lead. many modern psychologists understand that there could be multiple factors that contribute to behaviors
What were the essential properties of phrenology?
idea that certain faculties could be predicted by the individual differences in skull shape. faculties would be located in a specific part of the brain and they would differ from person to person. Strength of a faculty could be inferred by skull shape
What are faculties?
thoughts, feelings, etc.
Which scientists are associated with the phrenology movement?
Franz Joseph Gall created it, Johann Spurzhen popularized it later for money
Who made a lot of money with phrenology
Fowler Bros. would read people and tell them who to marry/who to hire, etc.
Why did phrenology fail as a science?
-relied on anecdotal evidence
-looked for cases to fit theory, ignores cases that dont
-too vague to be falsified
-shape of brain =\= shape of skull
-areas identified don't match their proposed function
What is the Young-Helmholtz (or trichromatic) theory of color vision?
separate receptor systems on the retina are responsible to each of the 3 primary colors: red, green, and blue
What is ablation?
destroying specific sections of the brain and then observing the effects
How did Flourens use ablation go assess phrenology?
He used it to prove phrenology wrong.
-found that assigned areas and functions actually serve different functions
-cerebral cortex operates as an integrated whole rather than as a large collection of separate faculties located in specific places
Who is Tan?
-A patient that Broca did lots of research on.
-He could only say "tan" as an effect of motor aphasia
-paralyzed on right side of the body
-found damage on the lower left side of brain
Explain the relevance of Broca's findings for psychology
After studying 8 other autopsies similar to Tan's, Broca found that the ability to produce speech was localized to the left frontal lobe
What are the 3 psychophysical methods used by Fechner
1) average error ex.) when you take the mean error of a repeated perceptual task
2) method of constant stimuli- using randomization so participant is unaware
3) method of limits- "starting with no stimuli present and ascending/descending until a person was able to identify the stimulus that was present
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
PSY 361, Quiz 1
History and Systems Chapters 1-6
History and Systems: Chapter 2
Ch. 2 History & systems
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
PSY4342 - OBERLE - TXST - EXAM I
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
History and Theory Midterm
Psy 4391 History and Theory Exam 1 Archer
Brain and Behavior Midterm 2
Exam #2 Review