Biology 103 Chapter 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 17

Living organisms are composed of ____________, which is anything that occupies space and has mass (weight).
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A _______________ is formed when atoms are held together by covalent bondsmoleculeElectronegativitythe attraction (pull) for shared electrons; competition is between the atomsPolar covalent bonda covalent bond between two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed. This causes the molecule to have a slight electrical dipole moment where one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative.Hydrogen bondelectrically attracted to oppositely charged regions on neighboring moleculesWater molecules form hydrogen bonds because...the water molecule is polarHydrogen bonding causes molecules to stick together, a property called ____________.cohesion____________ is useful in plants to help transport water and nutrients up the plant.cohesionBecause of ____________ ___________, water has a greater ability to resist temperature change than other liquidshydrogen bondingHeatthe energy associated with movement of atoms and molecules in matterTemperaturemeasures the intensity of heat_______ must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds and is released when hydrogen bonds formHeatSolutiona liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substancesSolventthe dissolving agentSolutethe substance that is dissolvedAcidschemicals other than water can contribute H+ to a solution; ex) HClpHpotential of HydrogenpH scaleAs ocean productivity (the rate of photosynthesis) goes up what would you predict would happen to global carbon dioxide levels?CO2 levels should go downCharacteristic chemical groups help determine the properties of compounds_________________ are the foundation for the molecules and chemicals processes required for life as we know it.Carbon compounds_______ ________________ differ only in chemical groups, which help produce male and female features.Sex hormonesCarbohydrates (sugars), lipids (fats), proteins, and nucleic acids are all _________________________macromoleculesMacromolecules are also called ____________ because they are made form identical building blocks strung together.polymersThe building blocks that form polymers are called _________________.monomers_______________ reaction removes H20 to make polymers.Dehydration________________ adds H2O to break polymers.Hydrolysis______________________ are macromolecules that function as fuel; has carbon, hydrogen, and oxygenCarbohydratesSucrose and lactose are _______________________.disaccharidesStarch and cellulose are ____________________.polysaccharidesEnergy comes from _________________________.monosaccharidesWhen you eat a candy bar you are eating mostly simple sugars. If you eat a candy bar while watching a movie, how will your body utilize those sugars?The sugars will likely be stored as glycogen and will also likely be stored as fat.Chitin and cellulose are carbohydrates that are NOT _________________.digestible__________ prevents and reduces colon cancer.FiberWhich source of carbohydrates will be digested the slowest? A) Table sugar B) Honey C) Whole wheat bread D) AppleC) Whole Wheat BreadFeatures of Lipids: _____________ molecules that do not dissolve in water; greasy; significant source of ____________ storagenonpolar; energyThree types of lipidsfats, sterols, and phospholipids________ have long-term energy storage and insulation.Fats___________ regulate growth and development. Examples are cholesterol and sex hormones.Sterols_______________ form the membranes that enclose cellsPhospholipids_____________ provide more than 2x as much energy as carbohydrates and proteinsLipidsSaturated fats are _______ at room temperature.solidUnsaturated fats are _______ at room temperature.liquidCholesterol is an important component of _____ _________ in animals.cell membranes______________ can attach to vessel walls and cause them to thicken.Cholesterol____________ influence memory and mood.Estrogen_____________ stimulates muscle growth.TestosteroneProteinsversatile macromolecules that serve as building blocksA protein's function is most dependent on...its shapeNucleic acids store ______________.informationRNA differs from DNA. ______ has a sugar molecule of the sugar phosphate molecule, is single stranded, and Uracil replaces Thymine.RNARNA takes information for production of a ____________ from DNA, moves them to another part of the cell, and directs the building of a protein.proteinWhen proteins are heated, they usually denature. If moderate heat was applied to this molecule of DNA what part of the molecule would break down or break apart first?The nitrogen base pairs would separate in the interior of the molecule.Prokaryotesbacteria and archaeaEukaryotesprotists, fungi, plants, and animalsShared features of Prok. and Euk.Plasma membrane, chromosomes, ribosome, and cytoplasm______________ make the proteins encoded by DNARibosomesPlasma membrane has a _____________________ bilayer where the heads are facing outward.phospholipidProkaryotes don't have a ___________ or any other membrane enclosed organelles.nucleusPili and capsules are _____________ structures.attachmentThe flagella (which is only present in Prok.) is for ______________.locomotionLysosome and centriole are found in ____________ cells only.animalOrganelles are divided into four functional groups.Manufacturing, breakdown of molecules, energy processing, and structural support / movement / communicationManufacturing organellesnucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatusOrganelles that breakdown moleculeslysosomes, vacuiles, and peroxisomesEnergy processing organellesmitochondria and chloroplastsStructural support, movement, communicationcytoskelaton, plasma membrane, cell wallRough ERsynthesis of membrane lipids and proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesiclesSmooth ERlipid synthesis; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storageGolgi apparatusmodification and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesiclesBreakdown: lysosomesEnzymes and membrane made by endomembrane system; Digestion; Recycling of damaged organellesBreakdown: PeroxisomesBreaks down fatty acids, amino acids & alcoholBreakdown: VacuolesProtists engulf food particles (digested by lysosomes); White blood cells engulf bacteria (destroyed by lysosomes); Central vacuole in plants has various functionsMitochondria converts ___________ to chemical energy of ATPfoodChloroplast converts _______ energy to chemical energy of sugarssunlightMitochondriaconvert chemical energy in foods to chemical energy in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) (CH6)ChloroplastsPhotosynthesis - convert sunlight to sugar for energy (CH7)CytoskeletonProvides cell shape (skeleton); Cell motility (movement)Tight junctionsprevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cellsAnchoring junctionsfasten cells together into sheetsGap junctionschannels that allow molecules to flow between cellsDifference between Prok. and Euk.The eukaryotes have the interior of the cell divided by internal membranes into specialized compartments.Membranes are composed of what?Phospholipids and protiensMembrane proteins function as...enzymes, signal transductions, transporters, and communicatorsBecause membranes allow some substances to cross or be transported more easily than others, they exhibit ____________ _______________.selectively permeabilityNonpolar molecules like CO2 and O2 cross the ___________ easily unlike polar molecules like glucose and other sugars.membraneTransport across a membrane: Passiveno energy investment (diffusion)Transport across a membrane: Activecell invests energy (ATP)Transport across a membrane: Exocytosis and endocytosislarge molecules are transported in and out of cell (inside of vesicles)Diffusiona process in which particles spread out evenly in an available space; higher conc. area to a lower conc. areaParticles move down their _____________ _____________.concentration gradientOsmosisthe tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.Tonicitythe ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water and is dependent on the concentration of a solute on both sides of the membraneIsotonicthe concentration of a solute is the same on both sidesHypertonicthe concentration of solute is higher outside the cellHypotonica higher concentration of solute inside the cellOsmoregulationprevents excessive uptake or excessive loss of water and is how organisms maintain water balance in their cells