Week 1 - Cardiovascular Lab
Terms in this set (13)
single chamber, dual chamber, dual-site atrial, biventricular, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy devices
What 6 types of pacemakers exist?
AV conduction is likely to return
When are single chamber pacemakers commonly used?
pacing electrodes in right atria and ventricle which maintain relationship between atrial and ventricular contraction; also allow HR to increase with exercise
describe the mechanism of dual chamber pacemakers
prevent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; 2 atrial leads and one right ventricular lead
What are dual-site atrial pacing pacemakers used for? How do they work?
abnormal interventricular conduction (LBBB), commonly in heart failure; pacemaker leads in both ventricles
When are biventricular pacemakers used? How do they work?
cardiac tachyarrhythmia; if the device senses a ventricular rate it performs cardioversion (defibrillation) or may rapidly pace to attempt to terminate ventricular tachycardia
What are implantable cardioverter defibrillators indicated for? How do they work?
heart failure patients with LBBB
when are cardiac resynchronization therapy devices indicated?
patients with syncope or palpitations, at risk for a-fib, or risk stratification post-MI
When are implantable cardiac monitors indicated?
1. chamber that is paced (A, V, Dual), 2. chamber that is sensed (A, V, D, 0=none), 3. response to sensed event (triggered, inhibited, Dual), 4. rate responsive features, 5. anti-tachycardia facilities
Describe the nomenclature system of pacemakers.
acute MI with asystole, symptomatic
, BBB, first degree AV block, Mobitz type II second degree AV block, or post-MI to prevent heart blocks; bradycardia with asystole, 2nd or 3rd degree AV block (
), drug overdose
What are the indications for emergency placement of a pacemaker?
general anesthesia with heart blocks,
, rarely for coronary angioplasty
What are the indications for elective placement of a pacemaker?
persistent symptomatic bradycardia, complete AV block (
), suppression of resistant tachyarrhythmias, prevent A-fib,
cardiomyopathy or hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
, symptomatic bradycardia In people with
sick sinus syndrome
What are the indications for a permanent pacemaker?
mechanical (caged-ball, single-tilting disk, bileaflet-tilting disc), bioprosthetic (heterograft, homograft)
What are the 2 major options for heart valves?