Week 1 - Study Design I
Terms in this set (18)
study designs can either be ____in which no advanced hypothesis exists and use pre-existing data OR ____which are driven by hypothesis and collecting new data
in (randomized/non-randomized) the investigator influences the exposure status of individual subjects and then monitors outcome
cross-sectional, ecological, case-series, case-reports
What are 4 types of descriptive study designs?
What are 2 types of analytic study designs?
determine population most affected by disease, identify most efficient resource allocation, target high-risk populations, form hypothesis
list 4 factors which emphasize the importance of descriptive studies
census, vital statistics reports, employment health exams, medical charts, CDC datasets
What are 5 examples of data sources for descriptive studies?
detailed report of a single "case" giving a descriptive picture of the progress of symptoms and signs, and response to treatment
study "concerned with and designed only to describe the existing distribution of variables, without regard to causal or other hypotheses"
a _____shows that a case report can happen repeatedly and provides opportunity to identify common features among multiple cases and describe patterns of variability among them
type of study designed to asses correlation between
exposure rates and disease rates
proxy for individual-level correlation, for their own purpose (smoke alarms, maximum BAC law)
What are 2 reasons for studying group level correlations?
cheap/quick, data already collected; inability to link exposure with disease in particular individuals, inability to control effects of other variables
What are 2 advantages of ecological studies? 2 limitations?
Group-level association may not accurately reflect the corresponding individual-level association
explain the ecological fallacy
(individuals/populations) are the unit of analysis in cross-sectional studies
provide an idea of the association between prevalent disease and risk factor status
what is the purpose of cross sectional study design?
quick/cheap, can repeat to determine population trends; temporal sequencing, healthy participant effect
What are some advantages of cross-sectional studies? disadvantages?
ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data essential to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice (e.g., BRFSS)
Data is not collected routinely or continuously. Data is often interpreted with the intention of understanding the etiology, or risk factors for disease