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Terms in this set (20)
Define and Discuss the significance of dissoi logoi
1. Comes from the Greek for "double argument" and is the concept of opposing arguments,
2. it is a cornerstone of Sophistic ideology and method.
3. And used in the courtroom for litigation
4. Forces you to be aware of your opponent's argument to help you defend your own position.
5. Create a message to reinforce that there is a problem with the opponent's argument.
6. The principle of how important it is to strengthen your own argument and be familiar with your opponents. So you can refute it .
7. Basically how a debate should go
What constitutes noble Rhetoric? How is this ideal central to Plato's ethic for rhetoric.
1. Socrates definition is someone that can adapt to the audience, should know the truth.
2. This is central to Plato's ethic for rhetoric because he believes that you should be able to take the get absolute truth then stylize it to a specific audience
What is the dialectic? How does this type of discourse, for plato, differ from rhetoric?
1. Dialectic is a type of discourse where you go back and forth until you come to a conclusion and how we try to find the capital T truth.
2. Dialectic is logic embodied in reason.
3. Dialectic is where the truth lies, it is a rigorous rhetorical inquiry through logic.
4. And it differs from rhetoric because dialectic truth doesn't have faith in common mind. There is a dialogue that takes place and works from reasonable truths.
5. Rhetoric gives and takes of persuasion. People can be selfishly motivated when using rhetoric.
6. Rhetoric can sway from truth, where dialectic starts with the truth.
What did Aristotle mean by the "pleasure of anger"? How can a rhetor use this?
1. What Aristotle means by the "pleasure of anger" is that we experience pleasure when thinking of revenge. The act of plotting even though you may or may not carry it out and getting revenge gives us pleasure.
2. A rhetor can use this by either intensifying it or dissipating.
3. You can put the audience in the right frame of mind in regards to certain issues.
4. The speaker knows that they can use it to appeal to emotion and influence the audience. (Pathos)
Is an exigency discovered or created by a rhetor?
1. Bitzer argued that exigencies were real and could be determined objectively. Some are perceived by an audience and were created by a speaker but may not even be accurate. 2. For example, John Kennedy and the missile gap was created perception of an exigence that required action even though it was exaggerated.
3. The constraints arise out of the situation of the speaker and audience and can shape the appeal.
Why is Kairos central to Sophistical epistemology?
1. Kairos was central to the Sophists because they stressed the rhetor's ability to adapt to and take advantage of changing circumstances.
2. Because it teaches a speaker to seize the moment and the expectations of the audience.
3. Speech must happen at a certain time in order to be most effective.
Why do tropes reveal so much about our society?
1. Tropes reveal so much about our society becuse it
Describe how rhetoric is epistemic
1. Rhetoric is epistemic because it overcomes the limitations of other forms of discourse.
2. Scientist explain how the voice can vary in order to hold the attention of the audience.
3. Without rhetoric we wouldn't be able to persuade audiences effectively because it would just stay in our head and wouldn't be able to learn without the teaching.
Describe the difference between doxa and episteme.
1. Doxa refers to common belief and popular opinion
2 While episteme is portrayed as more of a justified, true belief.
3. For example, evolution shifted from general knowledge of the creation of humans through the bible (doxa) to a solidified idea that humans evolved from early primates through series of adaptations which can be justified scientifically (episteme).
4. Episteme differs from doxa in the sense, it deals with less subjective views and uses objective observations to make arguments more substantial. Doxa is the foundation and episteme is the steel beams
What are the three rhetorical situations for Aristotle and how do they differ?
1. Deliberative - political, to sway, exhortation, dissuasion - legislative, people can identify make real persuasive Trying to supply a state of happiness for voters. Trying to serve the greater good
2. Epideictic - Has to do with our own lives Usually ceremonial like a best man speech, it involves the praise, blame, or honor of a subject. and involves the mastery of amplification or comparison
3. Forensic - has to deal with legal issues, accusation or defense, justice/injustice
Describe the types of tropes and other devices that Daniel Webster employed in his 1820 eulogy.
He uses epideictic rhetorical situation by using praise and blame
metaphor concerning the
the sun, planets, stars: unifying image
unify various elements in the speech, reference to the past, present and future
end rises from the declarative desert that precedes it
Explain the significance of the "three speeches" in the Phaedrus.
1. 3 speeches of love, which is a metaphor for truthfulness of rhetorical expression on knowledge vs. belief, only knowledge leads true power
2. LYSIAS: love without strings, passionate, in the moment but later on forget. Truth is shallow. They are really good at persuading and is not grounded in virtuous truth
3. SOCRATES: passionate/possession, madness, selfish. I want you to believe I am the best. Not real virtue. You care more about how people think of you. They dont care about their well being they just want your affection. Don't care about the audience themself its self sacrifice.
4. True love: Unselfish self and is a metaphor for the noble rhetoric, self-path to enlightenment. A metaphor, a complete sharing between. Strives for perfect humans by revealing their own nature.
Describe Plato's central arguments against Sophistry as articulated in the Gorgias.
1. Main concern: their rhetoric does not provide an adequate view of justice.
To Plato, they claim to teach about justice without having any real knowledge of justice itself.
3. Sophistic manipulation of Doxa is aimed at persuasion only
4. Plato goes beyond persuasion to discover epistemic truth
5. One who truly knows justice will be incapable of injustice.
6. Generates agendized good relative to the desires of the strongest speaker. "tool-like"
Define ethos using Aristotle's perspective.
1. Ethos is to be worthy of belief
2. Credibility is the most potent form of persuasion. If a speaker is believable and trusted audiences are much more likely to be persuaded.
3. Even if the speaker is honest and trustworthy, if the audience doesn't agree there is no persuasive situation.
4. The speaker also must have a good Prior reputation, goodwill, character, knowledge, and be able to demonstrate expertise.
Use the O.J. simpson criminal trial to describe Cicero's stasis theory.
1. Stasis theory talks about the invention of arguments and the organization of forensic speeches.
2. In the court room setting, there are two points to an argument within a case
3. Questions of conjecture: what happened and why?
4. The Defense tried to portray OJ as a loving father, beloved athlete, innocent to show he didn't have the character of a killer.
5. Question of definition: can it be defined as a crime?
6. Questions of quality: justifiable? (domestic abuse - was it in self defense?
Identify the specific characteristics of rhetorical myth.
1. Primal narrative trope
2. Language of Languages.
3. Reinforces valuative oppositions
4. Answers compelling questions
5. Larger than life persona
6. Conveys a sense of sacred time and place. Perpetuated historicism favorable to those in power.
7. Started orally
8. Truth value gives myths power
9. Archetypal myths: Christ George Washington crossing the delaware.
Describe Vico's Theory of Ingenium
1. He had imaginative metaphysics - a collective human knowledge inclusive of the narratives built into various cultures. (universal history).
2. Ingenuity and imagination help access and extend myths, common topics and invention of ideas
Compare and contrast: cicero's ideal type of citizen with Plato's
1. Cicero: citizen-warrior-orator or a philosopher orator statesman which would be a political leader. MUST KNOW A LITTLE ABOUT EVERYTHING TO EXTEMPORIZE WISELY. You find truth while you are speaking (middle t)
2. Plato is Noble rhetoric or a philosopher king who uses rhetoric. ONE WHO SEEKS TRUTH THROUGH DIALECTIC INQUIRY.
You have the truth before you persuade people and then you stylize it to the specific people. CAPITAL T TRUTH
List and define Bacon's "Idols" What role do these have in shaping meaning and perception?
1. Tribe: social species specific. We do what our tribe does like getting married because getting married is better than being single. Or rituals of patriotism; what it means to be an American
2. Cave: Subjectivity. We have nothing else to compare to it. Look to small insight rather than the world. Prefer comfort of subjectivity
3. Theatre: Untested philosophical axiom. Religion, or influence of violence on television. Motivational speakers
4. Marketplace: Popular expression like emoticons, BFF, neologism
WE NEED TO AVOID THE IDOLS TO EXPRESS THE UNCLUTTERED TRUTH
What is the role of "sensation" in Locke's epistemology, especially as it relates to the role of "external" discourse of rhetoric?
1. The primary form of knowing the sensitive shapes the intuitive and demonstration.
2. Sensations become rationalized that turn into ideas, where simple ideas can become complex
3. which leads to external discourse where we experience reflection or thought.
4. External is rhetoric and is necessary to weigh our indication and avoid solipsism and always drive for perspicuity.
5. We cant always understand what signs mean,
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