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Descriptive Pathology Terms
OVC POD descriptive pathology
Terms in this set (125)
A localized collection of neutrophils surrounded by a fibrous wall. In almost all cases, the cause is bacterial and the neutrophils are necrotic.
A benign neoplasm arising from glandular epithelial cells.
The absence of any trace of an organ, resulting from failure of the development even of the anlage of that organ during embryogenesis.
Any of several types of amorphous, eosinophilic, extracellular, proteinaceous deposit that is characterized by a beta-pleated configuration when viewed by x-ray diffraction analysis, a fibrillar appearance on electron microscopy, and positive staining with congo red.
Literally, a failure to mature. In context of neoplasia, a reversion to a very primitive cell type.
A localized, pathologic dilatation of a blood vessel.
Variation in the size of cells, most commonly applied to erythrocytes and cancer cells.
The complete failure of development of an organ, even though its anlage (primordium) is present.
A biochemically orderly form of cell death distinct from necrosis. In some circumstances apoptosis is used synonymously with "Programmed cell death" as occurs in normal tissue remodelling, kinetic renewal. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis does not incite an inflammatory response. Whereas necrosis is pathological, apoptosis may be physiological or pathological.
Excessive accumulation of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Failure of the lungs to expand at birth or collapse of a previously aerated lung (or part of a lung).
A decrease in the size of a cell, tissue or organ after it had reached its appropriate size. Strictly speaking, such reduction should be due to a decrease in cell size, but the word is also applied to a decrease in size related to reduction in the number of parenchymal cells.
Liquefaction of dead cells that occurs after death of the entire animal.
The presence of bacteria in the blood stream and the dissemination of those bacteria to various parts of the body.
The surgical removal of cells or pieces of tissue for microscopic evaluation.
A clinical condition characterized by marked weight loss, muscle wasting, loss of appetite, and physical weakness. Most commonly seen associated with malignant neoplasia.
A malignant neoplasm.
An agent that causes cancer.
Malignant neoplasm derived from epithelial cells.
An impairment of cardiac filling caused by accumulation of fluid or other material within the pericardial sac.
An acute, spreading inflammation within the subcutaneous tissue.
Directed movement of a cell, ordinarily a leukocyte, along a chemical concentration gradient.
Coagulation (coagulative) necrosis
A type of cell death in which the cell becomes a homogenous, eosinophilic intact "ghost" of its former self with retention of the basic cellular outline. The architecture of the tissue is preserved (for a short time).
An increase in the amount of blood in a tissue due to impairment of venous outflow.
The dramatic reduction in circulating coagulation factors caused by their excessive utilization in animals with intravascular coagulation.
A developmental anomaly characterized by an excess of normal tissue in an abnormal location. The most common example in veterinary medicine is a corneal dermoid.
An epithelial lined, fluid-filled, cavity.
Small peptide molecules released from leukocytes and other cells which act in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine fashion to orchestrate inflammation, wound repair, the acute phase response, immune response, and hematopoiesis.
The mechanical or chemical removal of dead tissue from an area of necrosis. This may occur by natural means (macrophages, neutrophilic enzymes) or with veterinary assistance in the form of surgical or chemical cleansing. The application of maggots to a wound is one of the oldest forms of human intervention into the natural debridement process.
The plastic movement of red blood cells through an intact vessel wall.
Disorganized or atypical differentiation. Can be applied in an embryologic context, in wound healing, or in the early stages of neoplasia. Often this term is used to describe disordered differentiation of cells that normally follow an orderly step-wise series of maturation events, such the epithelial cells of the epidermis.
The deposition of calcium within injured tissue.
Ordinarily, ecchymotic haemorrhage. Slightly larger than petechial haemorrhages, measuring 3 mm to 1 cm in diameter.
The presence of a structurally normal tissue in an abnormal location. (heterotopic)
Accumulation of excess interstitial fluid within a tissue.
The seepage of fluid into a body cavity or other anatomic space.
The spread of particulate material via the blood stream. Alternatively (mostly in human medicine), the occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus.
The accumulation of suppurative exudate in a body cavity( most often used for pyothorax).
A focal area of necrosis of an epithelial surface which does not penetrate through the basement membrane.
An abnormal passage that serves to connect two adjacent epithelial-lined, hollow structures. Most common are rectal-vaginal fistulas, fistulas between different portions of intestinal tract and esophageal-tracheal fistulas.
Solitary and localized.
A highly unstable, reactive molecule that has one or more unpaired electrons.
Easily crumbed or broken into tiny pieces. A hallmark of necrotic tissue is a friable texture.
Necrosis of a tissue associated with the action of saprophytic, soil bacteria.
A nodular accumulation of macrophages, ordinarily around a centre of neutrophils or of foreign particulate material. Granulomas typically form around particles that resist degradation, such as mycobacteria or foreign bodies.
An adjective applied to a type of inflammation dominated, from the beginning, by macrophages. The inflammation is often driven by cytokines derived from Tlymphocytes. Immunology texts refer to granulomatous inflammation as "delayedtype hypersensitivity". Granulomatous inflammation does not necessarily involve the formation of discrete granulomas. Granulomatous inflammation is typically chronic, causes extensive tissue damage, and is associated with infectious agents that resist killing by leukocytes such as yeast, mycobacteria, fungi.
A developmental anomaly characterized by an excess of normal tissue in a normal location (contrast to choristoma).
A group of golden yellow pigments deposited in tissue as a result of breakdown of hemoglobin. It does not contain iron, and is most similar in structure to bilirubin.
The localized, nodular accumulation of blood that results from haemorrhage within a tissue.
The extravasation of blood due to damage to a blood vessel.
A complex golden granular intracellular pigment resulting from the aggregation of ferritin, ordinarily within macrophages that have engulfed red cells.
The arrest of bleeding from an injured blood vessel.
An archaic noun indicating a homogenous, eosinophilic proteinaceous accumulation within the cytoplasm of cells. Derived from the observation of globular eosinophilic deposits within alcoholic livers of people.
Glassy, eosinophilic and transparent or translucent. Hyaline refers to the appearance of certain protein deposits observed histologically but is not specific for a particular type of protein.
Increased intensity of staining, almost always applied to nuclei which are more intensely blue than normal. Used as a marker for malignant transformation, although it is also seen in any rapidly proliferating tissue (as in wound healing).
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a tissue due to increased arterial inflow. While it may be physiologic (as in digestion), it is most often used to denote the earliest phase of inflammation.
The increase in the size of a tissue due to an increase in the number of constituent cells.
Strictly, an increase in the size of a tissue due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells. When applied at the organ level, often used to describe increased mass, whether by cellular hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
Incomplete development of an organ. When applied strictly, it should indicate an organ that is small but otherwise structurally normal (see dysplasia).
A decrease in the availability of oxygen.
Caused by human intervention.
Yellow discoloration of the tissue caused by an increase in plasma levels of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin.
Without identified cause.
The process of becoming hard.
A localized area of necrosis of all components of a tissue caused by a reduction of blood flow. The impairment may be either venous or arterial, and may be due to a physical obstruction or to vasospasm.
The process of thickening of a fluid resulting from the resorption of water. In veterinary medicine, most commonly used in describing the desiccation of an abscess as it ages.
A substance produced by one type of leukocyte that exerts an effect on other leukocytes. Interleukins are a type of cytokine.
The telescoping of one segment of intestine into an adjacent segment. The usual outcome is infarction.
A regressive change in a tissue associated with a decrease in the size and number of constituent cells. Most often used for physiologic atrophy resultant from fluctuation in trophic hormones.
Reduction in blood flow to a tissue.
Necrosis of cells resulting from ischemia. Only if all constituent cells are destroyed can the name infarct be applied.
The dissolution of a nucleus within a necrotic cell.
Fragmentation of a nucleus into tiny basophilic dispersed fragments. Most often seen associated with caseous necrosis.
A structural (or occasionally functional) abnormality.
A malignant neoplasm of hematopoietic cells. Often this term implies the presence of malignant hematopoietic cells within the blood.
Various intensely vasoactive and phlogistic metabolites of arachidonic acid released from plasma membranes during inflammation.
Any one of a family of finely granular, golden brown, iron negative pigments derived from the breakdown of lipid-laden cell membranes. It is the microscopic counterpart of endstage autophagosomes known as residual bodies.
Type of necrosis in which the dead cells are liquified, either by their own enzymes or (more commonly) by enzymes contributed by infiltrating leukocytes. Necrosis in the brain is typically liquefactive.
A group of potent messenger proteins produced by T-lymphocytes on exposure to processed antigen. Lymphokines are a type of cytokine.
Pathologic softening of a tissue, ordinarily applied to liquifactive necrosis in brain, cornea, and bone.
Becoming progressively worse and causing death. Ordinarily, applied to neoplasms that invade, destroy, and eventually kill.
Dark red or black discoloration of feces due to the presence of digested (ie. gastric or pregastric) blood.
The transition of one adult cell type into another, usually closely related (and tougher) cell type.
The process by which malignant neoplastic cells are disseminated to, and growth within, other parts of the body.
A disease caused by fungi.
A biochemically disorderly (chaotic) form of non-physiological cell death within living tissue due to an injurious stimulus. Necrosis is pathological and typically incites an inflammatory response important for phagocyte removal of the necroti cells. In contrast, apoptotic cell death is biochemically orderly, may be physiological or pathological, and does not cause inflammation.
An abnormal mass of cells whose growth is excessive and uncoordinated with that of surrounding cells, and continues to grow in the same excessive manner after withdrawal of the stimulus that initiated the growth.
A portion of the genetic code that carries the potential to cause cancer.
Characterized by the presence of numerous finger-like surface projections.
A papillary benign, epithelial neoplasm, ordinarily derived from stratified squamous epithelium of the skin, oesophagus or rumen.
A variety of functional abnormalities in patients with cancer that cannot be directly attributed to the physical presence of the tumour or its metastatic offspring. Most frequently, they are caused by hormone-like chemicals unexpectedly produced by the genetically altered cancer cells.
Ordinarily, petechial haemorrhage. Pinpoint, less than 2-3 mm in diameter.
Characterized by differences in size, shape and other parameters of appearance. Most often applied in the microscopic diagnosis of malignancy, which is characterized by extreme cellular pleomorphism.
A vague term for a well-circumscribed, benign, pedunculated mass of tissue that projects from, or is suspended from, an epithelial surface.
Presence of disseminated, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages.
Consisting of, or containing, pus.
A liquid combination of dead parenchymal cells and neutrophils.
Condensation of the nucleus in a dying or dead cell.
The process by which ingrowth of angioblasts into a thrombus reconstruct new blood vessels which eventually permeated the thrombus and allow for restitution of blood flow through that thrombus.
The replacement of injured tissue by replication of progenitor cells.
The general process of wound healing. Sometimes, used more specifically to denote replacement by fibroplasia.
A malignant neoplasm composed of mesodermal or mesenchymal cells.
Massive accumulation of collagen that is the end result of wound healing.
Hard, tough, indurated. Usually, the result of acquired fibroplasia in the course of chronic inflammation or as a result of invasion by malignant neoplasia.
The clinical syndrome associated with the presence of bacteria and their toxins within the blood stream. All septicemia involve bacteremia, but not all bacteremias progress to septicemia.
A descriptive term for lesions raised above the organ surface, denoting a broad base of attachment to the tissue from which they originate.
Star-like in shape.
Venous infarction caused by the physical occlusion of venous blood flow.
Narrowing of the lumen of a hollow organ by the maturation of circumferential fibrous scarring.
Dilatation of apparently normal small blood vessels, usually applied to veins.
An agent causing developmental anomaly.
The process by which fragments of a thrombus dislodge, travel in the blood stream, and result in occlusion of the small vessels in which they finally impact.
A mass of fibrin, platelets, and other blood constituents that form within the flowing blood.
The twisting of an organ upon its own axis (torsion) or upon its pedicle (volvulus). Ordinarily, the result will be strangulation and venous infarction.
A clinical syndrome caused by the presence of toxic material (ordinarily, bacterial toxins) in the blood. Widely and loosely used but seldom proven.
Strictly, any nodular swelling of a tissue. In common usage, synonymous with a neoplasm.
A focus of necrosis in the surface of an epithelial tissue, reaching through the basement membrane. The distinction from erosion can seldom be appreciated on macroscopic examination.
A descriptive adjective, most often applied to thrombi on cardiac valves, which implies a loosely adherent papillary mass (cauliflower-like).
The degree to which an agent is capable of causing disease.
Thick and sticky.
An infectious disease of animals transmissible to humans under natural conditions.
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