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Terms in this set (25)
Why do the religious wars begin in 1560?
After the Peace of Augsberg, which gets rid of Protestants.
In 1648, who is considered to succeed Henry the 8th?
Mary I (Catholic; Catherine of Aragon, Tudor dynasty) Elizabeth (Protestant; Anne Boleyn) Edward (Anglican; Jane Seymour)
Who succeeds Henry the 8th?
Edward at first, but then he dies, so Mary takes over.
Who supported Mary I in her succession of Henry 8? Who does she marry, and what happens to her? What does she do? Nickname? How does she die?
Mary is supported by the nobles. She gets married to Philip II, believes she has a son, but turns out she is not really pregnant. She goes crazy and kills lots of Protestants >> nicknamed "Blood Mary". She dies of the plague.
Who succeeds Mary I, and why is she able to?
Elizabeth is able to succeed Mary I, her half-sister, because Mary never kills Elizabeth, even though Elizabeth is a Protestant. She just locks Elizabeth in the Tower of London.
Who was Queen Elizabeth? Characteristics? Government- good or bad? Parliament? Attitude towards queenship? Helps/hurts England? Foreign Policy? Religion/Who does she support? Main goal? Nickname?
Queen Elizabeth was possibly the greatest English monarch in history. She was ambitious, and had good diplomats. Good relations with parliament. Took job seriously, worked hard to win people's support. Makes England a world power. Flexible foreign policy. B/c she was a Protestant, Catholicism was treason by law. However, she was a politique, and wanted to unite England. So, she allowed people to practice Catholicism privately. She was called the "Virgin Queen", since she never married.
What religious beliefs did Queen Elizabeth hold? What causes did Queen Elizabeth support and why?
Supported Protestant causes (IE the Dutch, which makes Spain mad.) Sends Frances Drake to attack Spanish ships (privateer/pirate).
Which religious group stirred England during Elizabeth's reign?
Puritans. She worries about them.
Why did Queen Elizabeth never marry?
Because she would lose power if she married. By staying single, she can choose to play all.
What state is named after Elizabeth?
Who was Mary Stuart?
Mary Queen of Scots. Catholic Queen of Scotland. Married Frances II (French King), returns to Scotland. Battles with John Knox (Presbyterian who hates Mary Queen of Scots) and others. Marries Lord Darnley, who she kills in a conspiracy with her BF, proved through "casket letters". She has to flee b/c ppl believe the "casket letters" (could be fake), goes to England and ends up in English prison, who locks her up for many years and is eventually beheaded by Queen Elizabeth, who is worried about assassination.
What idea scared many religious leaders? What treaties occurred that showed this fear?
Religious toleration. Peace of Augsburg followed (German princes choose religion for everyone- no religious tolerance). Treaty of Cateau Cambreis, which ends the Valois-Hapsburg war, unites Catholics.
Why does Philip II have beef with Elizabeth?
She refused to marry him. She supported the Protestants rebelling against Philip II in the Netherlands. She is Protestant. She killed Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic. She knights Francis Drake, a privateer who stole from Spain. She foils him in the Spanish Armada (1588). He sent sailors, soldiers, and priests.
What 4 major religious wars happen from 1560? Where?
Spanish possession (Netherlands). France. Germany. England
Which country opposed Philip II? What religion were they, and what branch specifically?
Netherlands. Protestants, mostly more tolerant Calvinists though.
What was the Spanish Armada? AKA? Results?
Invincible Armada (1588). Privateers (Drake) vs Hawkins (Sea Dogs). England wins, with a faster, lighter strategy. Storms hurt Spain, and they are also far from home.
What was Raleigh and the Lost Colony?
When Raleigh sent an expedition to Roanoke Island, where he had left a community of settlers, but they disappeared. Called the Lost Colony.
Religions in France?
Catholics- dominant group. Huguenots (Protestants) Calvinists. Thrift, hard work. 40% of aristocracy (nobles) fight King's power. More well off, had more power. Politiques (had a religion but pragmatic). People in the middle.
How many civil wars were there in France in the late 16th century? Who dominates?
Nine. Valois dominate.
What percent of the population did the nobles and bourgeoisie make up?
Who was Francis I?
Valois King, who signed the Concordant of Bologna.
Who was Henry II?
Son of Francis I. Marries Catherine de Medici, against spreading Protestantism, so he signs the Treaty of Cateau—Cambresis (1559), which ends the Hapsburg-Valois war uniting Catholics in HRE, Spain, and France (scary for Protestants). Killed jousting.
Who takes over after Henry II dies? Kids? Who got married to who?
One of his sons, but Henry's wife, Catherine de Medici, is pretty much ruling since their kids are stupid. He has lots of kids. One of his daughters is engaged to Philip II.
What was Catherine de Medici's goal with the religious wars? What did she do? What celebration happens?
Wanted to end the religious wars, and bring Catholics and Protestants together. So, she marries her daughter Margaret to the leading Protestant of France, Henry of Navarre (Bourbon family), who is a Huguenot.
What happens during the celebration of Henry of Navarre and Margaret's wedding? What is this event known as?
Lots of leading Huguenots show up. When they come into Paris, they can't bring in any weapons. Catholics start killing Huguenots, but some escape, so Catherine de Medici gives the order to kill all of the Huguenots except Henry of Navarre, who is allowed to escape. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Bells ring during massacre. Philip II smiles.
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