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Accounting Rate of Return on Investment

Adjusting cash flows produced, Calculation of the rate of return on an investment by adjusting cash inflows produced by the investment for depreciation. Approximates the accounting income earned by the investment.

Capital Budgeting

h, The process of analyzing and selecting various proposals for capital expenditures.

Change Agent

In the context of implementation, the individual acting as the catalyst during the change process to ensure successful organizational adaptation to a new system or innovation.

Change Management

Managing the impact of organizational change associated with an innovation, such as a new information system.

Chief Information Officer

Senior manager in charge of the information systems function in the firm


A deliberate strategy to thwart the implementation of an information system or an innovation in an organization.

Critical Path Method

An algorithm used to schedule project activities

Critical Success Factors

A small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization. Used to determine the information requirements of an organization.

Data Entry Operators

IS staff whose main job is to enter data into IS

Enterprise Analysis

An analysis of organization-wide information requirements by looking at the entire organization in terms or organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements; helps identify the key entities and attributes in the organization's data.


The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end user interface of information systems.

External Integration Tools

Project management technique that links the work of the implementation team to that of users at all organization levels.

Formal Control Tools

Project management technique that helps monitor the progress towards completion of a task and fulfillment of goals

Formal Planning Tools

Project management technique that structures and sequences tasks, budgeting time, money, and technical resources required to complete the tasks.

Gantt Chart

Visually represents the timing, duration, and resource requirements of project tasks.


(1) Simon's final stage of decision making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution (2) The stage in the systems development life cycle when a system is put into production mode.

Information Resource Management

The process of managing information systems including hardware, software, data and databases, telecommunications, people, and the facilities that house these IS components -- as an asset or resource that is critical to the organization.

IS Plan

This plan serves as a road map indicating the direction of systems development, rationale, current/system situation, new developments, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget

Intangible Benefits

Benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.

Internal Integration Tools

Project management technique that ensures that the implementation team operates as a cohesive unit.

Internal Rate of Return

The rate of return or profit that an investment is expected to earn.

MIS Steering Committee

The group of top managers who oversee the MIS function, focusing primarily on policy, planning, and budgeting, and on prioritizing projects


The amount of money an investment is worth, taking into account its cost, earnings, and the time value of money

Network Managers

IS staff who manage the organization's networks

Organizational Impact Analysis

Study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.

Payback Method

A measure of the time required to pay back the initial investment on a project.

PERT Chart

Network diagram depicting project tasks and their interrelationships

Portfolio Analysis

An analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.

Present Value

The value, in current dollars, of a payment or stream of payments to be received in the future


Planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective

Project Management

the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project

Real Options Pricing Models

Models for evaluating information technology investments with uncertain returns by using techniques for valuing financial options.


Defines what work is and is not included in a project

Scoring Model

A quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.

Sociotechnical Design

Design to produce information systems that blend technical efficiency with sensitivity to organizational and human needs.

Systems Operators

IS staff who actually operate computers hands-on for tasks such as keeping systems running, changing paper on massive, high speed printers, and loading hard drives

Tangible Benefits

Benefits that can be quantifies and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.

User-Designer Communication Gap

Users and specialists have different backgrounds, interests, and priorities

User Interface

The par of the information system through which the end user interacts with the system; type of hardware and the series of on-screeen commands and responses required for a user to work with the system

Work Breakdown Structure

This structure uses a hierarchical tree structure to define and organize a project's full scope

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