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Bio 201 Quiz 3 Osseous Tissue
Terms in this set (21)
What are the two major divisions of the human skeleton?
The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
Ligaments vs. tendons
List AND describe the six functions of bone.
Support - supports the body and cradles soft organs
Leverage - skeletal muscles use bones a levers to move
Mineral storage - calcium and phosphate
Lipid storage - yellow marrow (primarily serves as a storehouse for fats)
Blood cell formation - hematopoiesis (red marrow)
Identify common bone markings, using the proper anatomical terminology (more appropriate for the lab portion of this course).
Describe in words AND draw examples of the six classifications of bones.
Long bones - have a shaft and two ends mostly compact (femur, humorous)
Short bones - cube like, mostly spongy (bones of the wrist and ankle)
Flat bones - thin, flattened, usually a bit curved, thin layer of compact around spongy bone (sternum, ribs)
Irregular Bones - bones that don't fit other classifications (vertebrae, hips)
Suture bones - small irregular bones (between the flat bones of the skull
Sesamoid bones - small and flat (inside tendons or near joints of the knee, hands, feet, and patella
What does it mean that compact bone is homogenous and spongy bone is heterogeneous?
Label the following regions of a long bone AND know the functions of each of these regions:
Diaphysis - shaft, composed of compact bone
Metaphysis - where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Epiphyisis (proximal and distal) - ends of the bone, mostly spongy bone covered with compact
Articular cartilage - covers the epiphysis, made of hyaline cartilage, decreases friction
Compact bone - has osteons
Spongy bone - does not have osteons
Epiphyseal line -
Medullary cavity - cavity of the shaft, contains mostly yellow marrow, contains red marrow in infants
Periosteum - Outside covering of the diaphysis
Endosteum - Lines the marrow cavity
Sharpy's Fibers - Secure periosteum to underlying bone
Compare and contrast the types of bone found in the diaphysis and epiphysis of a long bone.
Diaphysis - compact bone
Epiphysis - spongy bone covered in compact bone
Which region(s) of a long bone is periosteum NOT found?
The proximal and distal epiphysis
What type of marrow is found in the medullary cavity of adults? Of children?
Yellow marrow in adults, red marrow in children
What is the functional unit of mature compact bone called?
What is the function of the Haverisan Canal and Volkmann's canal? What are the other names for each of these canals?
Central (Haversian) Canal - Contain blood vessels that run vertically
Perforating (Volkmann's) - perpendicular to the central canal - Carry blood vessels into bone and marrow
What is the name given to the region of bone in which osteocytes reside?
What passageway connects the central canal to the lacunae? What are the functions of these passageways?
Canaliculi, a transport system to exchange nutrients and waste
What are the two other names that could be used to describe spongy bone?
Compare and contrast compact bone with spongy bone.
Compact bone -
Spongy bones - do not have osteons or blood vessels, some spongy bones have either red or yellow marrow
List AND describe the chemical makeup of osseous tissue. Be generally familiar with the abundances of each of the components of bone.
2/3 of bone matrix is calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, reacts with calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 to form crystals of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, 1/3 of bone matrix is protein fibers (Type I Collagen)
Compare and contrast the roles of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteoprogenitor cells.
Osteocytes - Maintain the protein and mineral content of the matrix, Assist in the repair of damaged bone (can covert to osteoblasts)
Osteoblasts - Perform osteogenesis
Osteoclasts - Cells that break down bone matrix
Osteroprogenitor - Aid in the repair of bone fractures
Describe in detail how osteoclasts break down bone. Using this knowledge, describe how braces work.
Dissolve matrix by secreting acids and certain enzymes
a force is applied by the braces, the bone gives way on one side and the bone is built up on the other
Compare and contrast the processes of osteogenesis, ossification, and calcification.
Osteogenesis - bone formation
Ossification - the process of replacing other tissues with bone
Calcification - Primarily converting the osteoid matrix to bone by the addition of calcium
Compare and contrast IN DETAIL WITH DRAWINGS intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
Intramembranous - occurs in the dermis, produces the flat bones of the skull and face, the mandible, and the clavicle.
Mesenchymal cells aggregate, blood vessels grow, spicules connect, spongy bone is developed
Endochondral - Ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage
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