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80 terms

Geography Exam 3 (exam questions)

STUDY
PLAY
The sandblasting action of wind-blown particles is called
Abrasion
a desert pavement surface is associated with which of the following types of desert
reg
a characteristic cone-shaped depositional feature in the desert that usually forms at the mouth of a canyon is known as a(n)
alluvial fan
rocks that appear pitted and grooved, and sometimes polished smooth by eolian processes, are termed
ventifacts
the removal and lifting of individual loose particles by the wind is termed
deflation
stream-related processes are termed
fluvial
which of the following grain sizes is most readily moved by the wind?
intermediate
regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called
swells
the term eolian refers to
erosion, transportation, and deposition by the wind
the general term for clay. silt, and sand deposited by running water is
alluvium
the undulating form that gives earth's surface its character and general configuration is called
topography
pulverized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called
tephra, or pyroclastics
which of the following supports the continental drift concept
all of the above support the theory
orogenesis refers to
a general term for a mountain building episode that thickens continental crust
drainage density refers to
a measure determined by dividing the length of all the channels by the area of its drainage basin
maximum velocity in a stream is found
at the center and near the surface, corresponding with the deepest parts of the stream channel
a common crescent-shaped dune with horns pointed downwind is called a
barchan dune
terranes refer to
displaced and migrating pieces of earth's crust
what type of rock forms from the solidification of molten material
igneous
vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as
relief
a cutoff on a meandering stream results in the formation of
an oxbow lake
near the shore, waves of transition begin to "feel bottom" and, as a result, the orbits of the water molecules in the wave become more _________ . this process eventually causes __________ to form
elliptical; breakers
which of the following is an exogenic process
weathering
after water itself, what are the primary elements which occur in sea water
chlorine and sodium
wave action works to straighten a coast as a wave energy focuses around headlands and tends to disperse energy in coves and bays in a process called
wave refraction
which of the following is correct regarding loess deposits
they are formed of fine-grained clays and silts
coral bleaching refers to
the loss of algae from the coral
which of the following is an example of a first order of relief
an ocean basin
coral formations
are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae
particles of sand, gravels, and shells that move along the shore form the
beach drift
which of the following is incorrectly matched
shearing -- stretching or faulting
an exotic stream is
any river that arises in a humid region and then passes through to an arid region
given present global warming trends and predicted climate change for the next century, sea level is estimated to rise
between .18 -- .59 m (7.1 -- 23.2 in)
the belief that disasters have produced most of the major features of earth is called
catastrophism
stream transport involves all of the following except
sheet flow
uniformitarianism assumes that
the same physical processes we see today are key to understanding the processes that have been operating throughout geologic time
an interruption in a stream's graded profile of equilibrium is called a
nickpoint
an extensive area of sand and sand dunes is known as a(n)
Erg desert, or sand sea
which of the following is an endogenic process
volcanism
at which of the following locations is new ocean crust being formed
oceanic rift zones
the state of georgia is principally within which major drainage basin
south atlantic-gulf
which of the following is correct regarding worldwide sea level
it was about 130 m lower 18,000 B.P., and about 10-20 cm lower 100 years ago or so
the area at the surface directly above the subsurface location where seismic waves are initiated is termed the
epicenter
natural levees are created during
floods
consider the equation Q=wdy. according to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will
increase
a rock transformed from any other rock through extreme heat and or pressure is referred to as
metamorphic
limestone is a type of _____ rock that forms when ______
sedimentary; calcium carbonate precipitates, or organic material containing calcium carbonate accumulated in a water environment
composite cones have steep slopes and experience ______ eruptions because they are composed of ______ magma
violent; felsic
continental crust is basically _______, whereas oceanic crust is basically _______
granite; basalt
elongated, streamlined ridges aligned parallel to the most effective wind direction are called
yardangs
water can be considered a "universal" solvent
true
limestone is lithified metamorphic rock, high in magnesium, whereas marble is a sedimentary form
false
water is a more effective agent of erosion in deserts than wind
true
rivers have played a relatively minor role in the geography of human history
false
the appalachians are older than the rockies
true
erosion of the walls of a channel normally occurs on the outside curve of a meander
true
the alps and alpine complex in europe are an example of a third order relief
false
continental shields, or cratons, are generally of low elevation and old in age
true
earthquake and volcanic occurrences do not correlate well with crustal plate boundaries
false
as the potential evapotranspiration increases, salinity decreases
false
a single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition
true
the atacama desert is one of the world's driest regions and is located on the southwest coast of africa
false
a major drainage basin consists of a single watershed
false
barrier islands are stable islands that are suitable for development
false
the suspended load of a stream is the coarser materials that are dragged along the stream bed
false
desert pavement refers to
surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravels
a hypsographic curve is
a generalized curve showing earths surface by area and elevation in relation to sea level
on the desert floor, at locally low elevations, an intermittently wet and dry flat area in a region of closed (interior) drainage is called a(n)
playa
when people go swimming along a coast, they often find themselves, after a while, down the coast from where they first entered the water. they moved downshore because of
longshore currents
which side of a dune typically has a slope angle equal to that of the angle of repose for sand?
leeward
which of the following is correct regarding continental drift?
the term "continental drift" is now called plate tectonics
the greatest flow from rivers east of the continental divide in the rockies is into the
Gulf/Atlantic drainage
sand that extends from a coast into open water is called a
barrier spit
when geologists or archaeologists dig downward into a unit of rock or sediment, they are digging "back in time". this fact is based on the principle of
superposition
the largest material that can be carried by a stream is carried as
bed load
the littoral zone extends inland to
the highest water line that occurs during a storm
which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in earth, from surface to the center?
crust, asthenosphere, lower mantle, core
in which region of the US are eolian processes most effective
southwest
an instrument used to record vibrations in the crust is the
seismograph
the total possible load a stream can transport is its ________, whereas a stream's ability to move particles of specific size is its ___________.
capacity; competence