66 terms

Upper Limb

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Omohyoid
O: upper border of scapula
I: hyoid bone
A: depresses larynx and hyoid bone
N: ventral rami of C1 and C2
Trapezius
O: occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae
I: lateral clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
A: elevates, retracts scapula
N: accessory n. (CN 12)
B: superficial branch of trans. cervical a.
Levator scapulae
O: transverse process of C1-C4
I: superior border of scapula
A: elevates scapula
N: dorsal scapular n.
B: dorsal scapular a.
Rhomboid major
O: spinous processes T2-T5
I: medial border of scapula
A: retracts scapula (remember: Rhomboids Retract!)
N: dorsal scapular n.
B: dorsal scapular a.
Rhomboid minor
O: ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes C7 and T1
I: medial border of scapula
A: retracts scapula
N: dorsal scapular n.
B: dorsal scapular a.
Serratus anterior
O: lateral part of 1st 8 ribs
I: medial border scapula
A: protracts and holds scapula to body
N: long thoracic n.
B: lateral thoracic a.
Serratus posterior
O: T11-L2
I: lower border ribs 9-12
A: draws lower ribs down and back to help rotate/extend trunk
N: intercostal n. T9-T12
B: intercostal arteries
Subclavius
O: 1st rib
I: clavicle
A: fixes clavicle
N: N. to subclavius
B: thoracoacromial trunk - clavicular branch
Pectoralis minor
O: ribs 3-5
I: coracoid process
A: protracts scapula
N: medial pectoral n.
B: pectoral branch of thoracoacromial trunk
Pectoralis major
O: medial clavicle, sternum, costal cartilage of ribs 2-6
I: greater tubercle of humerus
A: adducts, medially rotates humerus
N: medial and lateral pectoral nerves
B: pectoral branch of thoracoacromial trunk
Latissimus dorsi
O: spinous process of T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest
I: intertubercular sulcus ("lieutenant b/w the 2 majors")
A: adducts, extends, and medially rotates humerus (the "swimmer's muscle")
N: thoracodorsal n.
B: thoracodorsal branch of subscapular a.
Subscapularis
O: subscapular fossa
I: lesser tubercle of humerus
A: medial rotation of humerus
N: upper and lower subscapular nerves
B: trans. cervical a., subscapular a.
Supraspinatus
O: supraspinous fossa
I: greater tubercle of humerus
A: abducts humerus (begins abduction...what finishes it?)
N: suprascapular n.
B: suprascapular a.
Infraspinatus
O: infraspinous fossa
I: greater tubercle of humerus
A: lateral rotation of humerus
N: suprascapular n.
B: suprascapular a.
Teres minor
O: lateral dorsal scapula
I: greater tubercle of humerus
A: lateral rotation of humerus
N: axillary n.
B: post. circumflex humeral a. and circumflex scapular a.
Teres major
O: dorsal inferior angle of scapula
I: lesser tubercle of humerus
A: adducts, extends, medially rotates arm
N: lower subscapular n.
B: subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries
Deltoid
O: lateral clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
A: (ant.) flexes, medially rotates arm, (middle) abducts arm, (post.) extends and laterally rotates arm
N: axillary n.
B: posteror circumflex humeral a.
Coracobrachialis
O: coracoid process
I: medial middle humerus
A: flexion and adduction of arm
N: musculocutaneous n.
B: brachial a.
Biceps brachii short head
O: coracoid process
I: radial tuberosity
A: supinate and flex forearm
N: musculocutaneous n.
B: brachial a.
Biceps brachii long head
O: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula (goes thru shoulder joint!)
I: radial tuberosity
A: supinate and flex forearm
N: musculocutaneous n.
B: brachial a.
Brachialis
O: lower anterior humerus
I: ulnar tuberosity
A: flexes elbow
N: musculocutaneous n.
B: radial recurrent a.
Triceps brachii long head
O: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
I: olecranon process of ulna
A: extends forearm
N: radial n.
B: deep brachial a.
Triceps brachii lateral and medial heads
O: posterior humerus
I: olecranon process
A: extends forearm
N: radial n.
B: deep brachial a.
Pronator teres
O: medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna
I: middle lat. radius
A: pronates forearm and flexes elbow
N: median n.
B: ulnar a. and radial a.
Flexor carpi radialis
O: medial epicondyle of humerus
I: base of 2nd metacarpal
A: flexes wrist and abducts hand
N: median n.
B: ulnar a.
Palmaris longus
O: medial epicondyle of humerus
I: palmar aponeurosis
A: flexes wrist
N: median n.
B: ulnar a.
Flexor carpi ulnaris
O: medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon, post. ulna
I: pisiform, hook of hamate, 5th metacarpal
A: flexes wrist and adducts hand
N: ulnar n.
B: ulnar a.
Flexor digitorum superficialis
O: medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna, upper ant. radius
I: middle phalanges of digits 2-5
A: flexes digits 2-5 and wrist
N: median n.
B: ulnar a.
Flexor digitorum profundus
O: anterior ulna, interosseus membrane
I: base of distal phalanges 2-5
A: flexes digits 2-5 and wrist
N: ulnar n. (4-5), median n. (2-3)
B: anterior interosseus a.
Flexor pollicis longus
O: ant. surface radius, interosseus membrane
I: base of distal phalanx of 1st digit
A: flexes 1st digit and wrist
N: median n.
B: ant. interosseus a.
Pronator quadratus
O: distal 1/4 anterior ulna
I: distal 1/4 anterior radius
A: pronates forearm
N: median n.
B: ant. interosseus a.
Brachioradialis
O: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
I: lateral distal radius
A: flexes forearm/elbow
N: radial n. (exception b/c radial n usually supplies extensors of forearm)
B: radial recurrent a.
Extensor carpi radialis longus
O: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
I: base of 2nd metacarpal
A: extends and abducts hand
N: radial n.
B: radial a.
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
O: lat. epicondyle of humerus
I: base 3rd metacarpal
A: extends and abducts hand
N: radial n.
B: radial a.
Extensor digitorum
O: lat. epicondyle of humerus
I: bases of middle phalanges
A: extends fingers and wrist
N: radial n.
B: posterior interosseus a.
Extensor digiti minimi
O: lat. epicondyle of humerus
I: extensor expansion of 5th digit
A: extends digiti minimi and wrist
N: radial n.
B: posterior interosseus a.
Extensor carpi ulnaris
O: lat. epicondyle of humerus, prox. ulna
I: base of 5th metacarpal
A: extends and adducts hand
N: radial n.
B: ulnar a.
Anconeus
O: lat. epicondyle of humerus
I: lateral olecranon, prox. posterior ulna
A: assists in extension of forearm
N: radial n.
B: deep brachial a., recurrent interosseus a.
Supinator
O: lat. epicondyle of humerus
I: prox. 1/3 radius
A: supinates forearm
N: radial n.
B: radial recurrent a.
Abductor pollicis longus
O: post. ulna and radius, interosseus membrane
I: base of 1st metacarpal
A: abducts and extends thumb
N: radial n.
B: post. interosseus a.
Extensor pollicis brevis
O: post. radius and interossesus membrane
I: base of prox. phalanx of thumb
A: extends thumb
N: radial n.
B: post. interosseus a.
Extensor pollicis longus
O: post. middle ulna
I: base of distal phalanx of thumb
A: extends thumb
N: radial n.
B: post. interosseus a.
Extensor indicis
O: post. ulna, interosseus membrane
I: extensor expansion of index finger
A: extend index finger
N: radial n.
B:
Abductor pollicis brevis
O: scaphoid, trapezium, flexor retinaculum
I: base of prox. phalanx of thumb
A: abducts thumb
N: median n.
B: superficial palmar arch
Opponens pollicis
O: flexor retinaculum, trapezium
I: 1st metacarpal
A: abducts, flexes, rotates 1st metacarpal
N: median n.
B: superficial palmar arch
Flexor pollicis brevis
O: flexor retinaculum, trapezium
I: base of prox. phalanx of 1st digit
A: flexes thumb
N: median n.
B: superficial palmar arch
Adductor pollicis
O: base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate
I: base of prox. phalanx of thumb
A: adducts thumb
N: ulnar n.
B:
Palmaris brevis
O: palmar fascia
I: skin of palm
A: wrinkles skin
N: ulnar n.
B:
Abductor digiti minimi
O: pisiform
I: base of prox. phalanx of 5th digit
A: abducts 5th digit
N: ulnar n.
B:
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
O: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
I: base of prox. phalanx of 5th digit
A: flexes 5th digit
N: ulnar n.
B:
Opponens digiti minimi
O: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
I: whole ulnar side 5th metacarpal
A: abducts, flexes, rotates 5th metacarpal
N: ulnar n.
B:
Lumbricals
O: tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
I: tendons of extensor digitorum
A: flex MP joints 2-5, extend IP joints 2-5
N: median n. (1-2), ulnar n. (3-4)
B: superficial palmar arch, common palmar digital arteries, deep palmar arch, dorsal digital a.
Dorsal interossei
O: bases of metacarpals 1-5
I: prox. phalanx of digits 1-5
A: abduct fingers
N: ulnar n.
B:
Palmar interossei
O: (1st), 2nd, 4th, 5th metacarpals
I: bases of prox. phalanges of digits 1, 2, 4, 5
A: adduct fingers
N: ulnar n.
B:
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?
lateral: brachioradialis
medial: pronator teres
roof: line b/w medial and lateral epicondyles
floor: supinator and brachioradialis
What are the contents of the cubital fossa?
from lateral to medial: biceps brachii tendon, brachial a., median n.
What are the 9 tendons in the carpal tunnel?
-flexor digitorum superficialis (4)
-flexor digitorum profundus (4)
-flexor pollicis longus
Where does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?
inf. border of teres major
What determines the divisions of the axillary artery?
position of pectoralis minor
(1st part medial, 2nd part posterior, and 3rd part lateral to pec. minor)
What makes up the medial wall of the axilla?
1st 4 ribs, their intercostal muscles, and serratus anterior
What makes up the posterior wall of the axilla?
subscapularis, teres major, lat. dorsi
What makes up the lateral wall of the axilla?
coracobrachialis and biceps brachii
What are the branches of the axillary artery? (remember: Screw The Lawyers Save A Patient!)
Superior thoracic artery
Thoraco-acromial artery
Lateral thoracic artery
Subscapular artery
Anterior humeral circumflex artery
Posterior humeral circumflex artery
What 2 structures run together in the radial groove on the back of the humerus?
deep brachial a. and radial n.
What are the boundaries of the quadrangular space?
-long head of triceps brachii
-teres major
-teres minor
-shaft of humerus
What are the contents of the quadrangular space?
axillary n. and posterior circumflex humeral a.