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TI Chp 6.1 The Romans Form a Republic
Terms in this set (49)
As Greece civilization was in decline, what great city sprung up in the Mediterranean World?
Where is it in relation to Greece?
To the West of Greece in the Mediterranean
Who founded Rome, according to legend?
Romulus and Remus (twin sons of the God Mars)
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Why was Rome built (real story)?
because of its strategic spot and fertile soil
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Which three groups settled on the Italian penninsula and eventually fought for power?
Latins, Greeks, Etruscans
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Who are the Latins?*
These are the people who first settled the land on the bend of the Tiber River
- this area later became Rome
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Who were the Greeks?
- This group established colonies in southern Italy and Sicily
- interacted with the early Romans.
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Who were the Etruscans?
These people gave the Romans their alphabet and their knowledge of architecture, including the arch.
Where did the Etruscans originate from?
Rome's public meeting place and first temple.
Who was the last king of Rome?
What happened to him?
Tarquin the Proud
They kicked him out and swore never to be ruled by another King?
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What form of government did the Romans decide on?
a form of government in which power rests with citizens that have the right to vote to select their leaders (similar to our representative democracy)
Wealthy, aristocratic landowners who held most of the power in the early republic.
These people were the common farmers, merchants, workers, and artisans that made up the majority of Roman citizens.
What were the common citizens of Rome called?
How did the patricians gain its power?
What did the patricians claim?
that their ancestry gave them the power to make laws for Rome and its people (Hold the highest political offices)
Plebeians were prevented from holding these high offices.
Elected to represent the lower class (Plebians) of Roman citizens
What did tribunes do?
They protected the rights of plebians from unfair acts of patrician officials
- first roman written code of laws
- the laws were carved on 12 tablets and displayed in the forum
- established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law
- It stopped flexible interpretation of the law by the patricians
Roman writers bragged that they had acheived a "Balanced Government". What did they mean by that?
It had taken the best features of the monarchy, aristocracy and democracy to create their government.
two officials who commanded the army and directed the government. Term limited to ONE year.
What position were the two consuls similar to in the USA?
How were they the same?
How did they differ?
- Same=> Chief executive and commanders of army
- Different => Consuls served on year / President 4 years
What were the consuls limitations?
- Serve one year terms
- Couldn't be reelected
One consul could always overrule the other consuls decisions
- its primary functions
- # members
- how long did they serve?
- This was someone chosen to represent the upper class of Roman citizens.
- legislative and administrative functions (ALSO foreign and financial policies)
- 300 members.
- Membership was for life
This was someone chosen to represent the upper class of Roman citizens.
What were all citizen-soldiers a part of?
it made laws and appointed the consul
What was Centuriate Assembly responsible for?
Who elected Tribunes?
What else did they do?
- the tribal assembly
- make laws for common people
What would happen in times of crisis?
a dictator would be elected
- How picked
- a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army.
- They were chosen by consuls then elected by the senate
- term was 6 months
Roman soldiers were organized into large military units called _____________.
a large military unit (about 5,000 foot soldiers and some calvary) of the Roman army.
What were Romeís military forces called?
Who could be full citizens in Rome?
What rights did the other Roman citizens have?
- Those in the city of Rome and along the Tiber River
- Same rights but could not vote
Carthage was once a colony of ___________.
Where is it located?
- North African coast
Carthage was located on which continent?
What body of water did the Romans and Carthaginians share?
What conflict of interests lay between Rome and Carthage?
control of the Mediterranean Sea
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage
Between 264 and 146 Rome and Carthage fought 3 wars. What were they and what did they fight to gain control of?
1st-control of Sicily and western Mediterranean which lasted 23 years. Rome victory
2nd-began 218 BC led by Hannibal who wanted to avenge the first defeat (Hannibal victory except could not capture Rome)
3rd-took place 149-146 because Romans wanted to avenge Carthage. The Romans layed siege and sold the inhabitants into slavery
Where did Hannibal gain his greatest victory?
at Cannae in 216 BC
Who was Hannibal?
a brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat
Who led a force of more than 50,000 soldiers and 60 elephants across the Alps to invade Italy.
Hannibal in 2nd Punic war
Where did Hannibal lead his army in 2nd punic war?
Spain across France and through the Alps
He invaded northern Italy
Why do you think Hannibal followed along the coastline when he passed from Spain
Because it is the only place where the ground is relatively flat. There a mountain range 260 miles wide called the Pyrenees between Spain and Gaul. High too.
- This person was a daring Roman general during the Second Punic War.
- He devised a plan to attack Carthage
Where did the Romans finally defeat Hannibal?
at Zama near Carthage
Approximately how many miles did Hannibalís forces march to reach Cannae?
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