Third U.S. President from Virginia and apart of the Democratic-Republican Party. He believed in a society of small, independent farmers with universal education and stronger state governments. Was also an architect, diplomat, excellent conversationalists, inventor, philosopher, and farmer himself. He halved the national debt, scaled down armed forces, repealed Adams' Judiciary Act of 1801, approved the Louisiana Purchase, and sent explorers into the interior and western America. He died on July 4, 1826, the same day as John Adams. Causes: British supplied Native Americans with weapons, impressment, trade tensions, American desire to expand into Florida and Canada, war hawks, and British capturing of American ships.
Events: Madison declared the beginning of the war of June 18, 1812 but things did not really take off until 1813 once the Napoleonic Wars were slowing down in Europe. Meanwhile though, the U.S. had a failed attempt in the first summer to invade Canada from Detroit and instead would have to surrender that fort while also losing Fort Dearborn (Chicago) to Native Americans. And in the beginning, American ships had solid victories over British war and merchant ships but after the Napoleonic Wars, more of the British Navy could focus on America and they then created an effective blockade. The U.S. did take control of Lake Ontario and burned Canada's capital of York (Toronto) and took control of Lake Erie under the leadership of Oliver Perry and removed the British fleet at Put-In-Bay on September 10, 1813. They then regained Detroit and tried to invade Canada again under Harrison, going into upper Canada and killing Tecumseh in the Battle of Thames. To the South, Andrew Jackson took revenge on the Creeks on March 27, 1814 in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend as he broke their resistance. He then became a major general and took his men into Florida, taking Pensacola on November 7, 1814. However, at that time the British were entering Washington D.C., which they set afire on August 24, 1814 as they then proceeded to Baltimore, but they could not pass Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814. Two days earlier too, Americans in northern New York at the Battle of Plattsburgh halted another British invasion. The bloodiest battle, the Battle of New Orleans, which was a great American victory, took place after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve 1814.
A battle between British veterans in New Orleans planning on advancing to the Mississippi and Andrew Jackson along with his army of regular troops, Kentuckians, Tennesseans, Creoles, blacks, and pirates that took place on January 8, 1815. Jackson's men were well protected so when the British advanced, the Americans could easily repulse the attack. By the time the British abandoned their efforts, 700 British soldiers were wounded (including commander Pakenham), 1,400 were wounded, and 500 were imprisoned. Jackson losses 8 men and only 13 were wounded. However, they later learned that a peace treaty had already been negotiated by the time of the conflict. A religious revival in America that started in the 1790s as theologians tried to fight the spread of religious rationalism and revitalize church organizations, particularly evangelists. The made sects involved in this awakening were the Presbyterians (focused west and harsh towards the New Light), Methodists (fastest-growing in America) and Baptists (South). People travelled throughout the country to gain converts, such as Peter Cartwright, and many help "camp meetings," the first being at Cane Ridge, KY, to increase their support. The main ideas were to readmit God into daily life,embrace piety, and reject rationalism which threatened beliefs. Most no longer accepted predestination and instead believed good works brought grace. It also created new sects and united Christians under Christianity as they realized they shared core beliefs. This revival also created a sense of unity in communities which lacked an identity. Women especially joined the movement since many men had left to begin a life in the west and as a response to changing economic roles as their industrial roles in the home began to move out to crude factories. African Americans embraced the movement too as black preachers became leaders in their society and they used the egalitarian concept of gaining faith and applied that to belief in equality in American society. The Native Americans had their own revival too except it focused on returning to traditional religions and adding aspects of Christianity. The figurehead here was Handsome Lake and he encouraged tribes such as the Iroquois to quit the white man's way, particularly gambling and drinking. Overall, the movement diminished the power of freethinkers and forced them in becoming a small minority. An argument in the Senate sparked after a Connecticut representative proposed the temporary stopping of land sales and surveys. South Carolina senator Robert Y. Hayne dismissed the idea, saying that it was a way for the East, particularly the Northeast, to retain its power (wanted West support against tariffs). Massachusetts senator Daniel Webster (A nationalistic Whig) responded attacking Hayne, and indirectly Calhoun, for questioning the Union's integrity and national power over state power. Hayne then retaliated with Calhoun's theory of nullification, which caused Webster to give his speech that "Second Reply to Hayne," which ended with him saying, "Liberty sonf Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"Jackson would side with Webster, adding to the tension between Jackson and Calhoun. Conflict between the 2nd National Bank and the "soft" (more money in circulation, bank notes unsupported by gold or silver, preferred state banks, wanted fast economic growth) and "hard money" (gold and silver were the only basis of money, were against bank notes, suspicious of expansion and speculation) factions. Jackson, who believed in hard money, made clear that he would not renew the Bank's charter in 1836. To try to continue the Bank, Biddle granted financial favors to politicians such as Daniel Webster, who Biddle made the Bank's legal counsel and Boston director while Webster brought in Clay's support. Clay and Webster persuaded Biddle to apply for a charter renewal in Congress in 1832, which Congress would pass, and Jackson would veto, a veto Congress then failed to override. Clay's loss also impacted his 1832 presidential run, one he lost to Jackson and Van Buren as the Democrats got 55% of the major vote and 219 electoral votes. However, the Bank was still in existence until 1836 and so then Jackson tried to weaken it by removing government deposits (a matter which caused Jackson to fire and rehire a secretary of treasury twice) and placing them in different state banks ("pet banks"). Biddle responded by calling in loans and raising interest rates (wanted a recession to show importance of the Bank). This now very personal conflict was worsening financial problems in 1833-1834 as opposing groups blamed one another for it. Then however, Biddle contracted credit too far and increase protests led him to retract his reason actions and reestablish reasonable banking terms. This was seen as a Jacksonian victory as the Bank expired in 1836. Emerged as opposition to Jackson and named after an English party that had advocated limitation of monarch powers. They believed in expanding federal powers, industrial and commercial development, an interstate economic system, cautious about West expansion (instability), liked material progress, and wanted the U.S. to become a commercial and manufacturing world power. Their support came from Northeastern merchants and manufacturers, wealthier South farmers and ambitious West farmers, merchants (wanted internal improvements for economic gains), and Evangelical Protestants; their members tended to be wealthier and more aristocratic. Gained support through their Anti-Masonry connection (Jackson and Van Buren both were Free Masons) though early loyalty was divided among the Great Triumvirate: Clay, Daniel Webster, and Calhoun. Division among the party as one reason the Whigs lost to Van Buren in the 1836 election. They held their first nominating convention in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1839 and nominated Henry Harrison as their candidate. He won the election of 1840 but then died one month after taking office and his VP, John Tyler, was not a committed Whig and so frustrated Whig political attempts. A result of the specie circular, Treasury surplus distribution, crop failures,and European panics that were brought across the Atlantic. It would cause hundreds of banks and businesses to fail, increase unemployment, bread riots, lowered prices, failed transportation projects, caused some state governments to stop paying interest on bonds, and temporary repudiation of state debts.It lasted 5 years, was the worst depression seen yet, and politically hurt Van Buren and the Democrats since they did little to fight the depression since they were opposed to government economic intervention.