Psychology Exam #2

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According to the Hassle scale what causes the most stress for students?
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Terms in this set (38)
What is the effect of having a cell phone turned on while driving?Inattention blindnessWhat is an illusion?A false perception or misperception of an actual stimulus in the environment.What is the mental process that evolves acquiring, retrieving storing information?CognitionWhat does the concept of conformation bias assume?Tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.According to Sternberg, what type of intelligence is least likely to predict success?Contextual Intelligence (Practice Intelligence).Why do girls do better in school?More effort and disciplined.Two components of emotional intelligence?Personal and interpersonal.What are the learning traits of creating individuals?Opening to new experiences and ideas. Independent thinker. More likely to be motivated.How does classical conditioning work?A type of learning through which on organism learns to associate one stimulus with another.What is Watson doing with little Albert and his fear of rats by introducing him to other things?Stimulus generalization - Watson would hit a pan every time the rat came out and caused him to cry.How does classical conditioning affect our eating habits?Causes people o think they are hungry even after eating. Distinctive flavors of food.How does the concept of shaping work?Gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response.According to Senglemal, why would anyone stay in a relationship where they're being abused?Learned helplessness.How does behavior modification work in the practical world?It works through a systematic program based on learning principles of classical conditioned, operant conditioned, and observational learning in order to change behavior.What is the hardware and software of human memory system?Hardware: Memory Software: Learned memory strategies.What is the process of transforming information so it can be stored in memory?Encoding.When does consolidation occur in the memory process?During the second stage of processing a memory/when encoded information is stored in memory.What is the major problem for memory cramming for exams?You don't retain the information, overloads the short term memory.What is the act of repeating information for short term memory called?Maintenance rehersalWhat is the active process of avoiding unpleasant memory called?Motivated forgettingWhat is the principle of generalization and how does it works?The tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.What is the process of rewarding success approximation to get the desired behavior?Principle of shaping.SHORT ANSWER: List and describe Kunkels ego centric roles that limit our development and list the fears.Self indulging home. STAR: Favored child syndrome, solicits admiration to be validated, "perfect" persona. Fear- Being ordinary, rejection from being normal. CLINGING VINE: Victim archetype, child loses initiative, self- confidence, assertiveness, fear to stand on one's feet. Fear- Abandonment, lacking resources. Harsh, demanding home. TYRANT: To survive by dominating others, repressed need for affection and approval, need to achieve power. Fear- Losing control, losing attention. TURTLE: Avoidance of life for protection, renounce all normal desires, goals and ambitions, afraid to take risks. Fear- Being challenge and inadequate.SHORT ANSWER: According to Kunkel, what 3 experiences will remove the egocentric?1. Suffering- Enlarges the personality and open consciousness. 2. Numinous Experience- Hitting rock bottom. 3. Loving Another- Self sacrificing for wellbeing of another is transforming.SHORT ANSWER: What were the Sternberg's 3 types of intelligence?1. Analytic- Mental abilities most closely related to conventional IQ and achievement tests. 2. Creative- Reflected in creative thinking and problem solving. 3. Practical- Street smart, capitalize on strengths and compensate for weakness.SHORT ANSWER: What's the purpose of personal boundaries (2 types), effect on relationship, and freedom? Define walls and 3 examples.Purpose: To protect my reality from you and self respect, and to contain my reality and protect you from me. Effects: External- Body, skin, and touch. Internal- Thoughts, feelings, and perception. Boundaries increase our freedom and connecters by keeping us from being an offender or a victim. Wall: Defense mechanism, feeling of protection, and establish boundaries. EXAMPLES: Emotional, Social, and Psychological. Sex, religion, anger, fear, etc.SHORT ANSWER: Define classical conditioning with an example. 4 types of operant condition with example.Classical conditioning: Pairing one stimulus with another to get a response. EXAMPLE: Watson and little Albert. Reinforcement: Increase behavior Positive- Reward to get more of something (candy). Negative- Something unpleasant after a behavior so they will do it (noise to put seatbelt on). Punishment: Decrease behavior Positive- Presentation of something unpleasant after a behavior (get a ticket for speeding). Negative- Removal of something you need or want (after 3 speeding tickets, your license gets taken away).SHORT ANSWER: Define a complex and note 3 characteristics and 2 examples.Complex: A core pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and wishes in the personal unconscious organized around a common theme, such as power or status. 1. Complexes are normal. We all get "complexed." An exaggerated emotional reaction means we are alive and, maybe, needing to grow or heal. 2. Complexes, whether positive or negative, can put us under state of duress with compulsive thinking and acting, diminishing out sense of responsibility 3. Understood complexes lose their power to affect us. They do not disappear, but overtime, they grip on us can loosen. EXAMPLES: "star" complex, mother complex, tyrant complex, hero complex, etc.