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Terms in this set (36)
Tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms
Influence that produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgments
Influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant
The change of beliefs that occurs when a person privatley accepts the position taken by others
A superficial change in overt behavior without a corresponding change of opinion that is produced by real or imagined group pressue
The process by which dissenters produce change within a group
Interpersonal "credits" that a person earns by following group norms
A cultural orientation in which interdependence, autonomy, and self-reliance take priority over group allegiances
A cultural orientation in which interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony take priority over personal goals
CHanges in behavior that are elicited by direct requests
A two-step compliance technique in which an influencer sets the stage for the real request by first getting a person to comply with a much smaller request.
A two-step compliance technique in which an influencer prefaces the real request with one that is so large it is rejected
A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer begins with an inflated request, then decreases its apparent size by offering a discount or bonus
A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of the request by revealing hidden costs
Behavior change produced by the commands of someone with authority
Social Impact Theory
The theory that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to target persons
In one experiment, women were asked to answer survey questions. Those who agreed were later called and asked to allow several men to rummage through their kitchen drawers and cabinets. This is an example of the ________ compliance technique.
In the Asch study, participants conformed for ________ reasons, while in the Sherif study they conformed for ________ reasons.
a. informational; normative
b. secondary; primary
c. primary; secondary
d. normative; informational
In Milgram's initial study of obedience, ________ percent of the participants delivered the ultimate punishment of 450 volts.
c. less than 1
After John hired the lowest-bidding contractor to paint his house, he was presented with a contract that detailed additional charges for paints, brushes, paint removal, and the hauling away of debris. John is a victim of the ________ compliance technique.
After a friend tells Kristin that a seat belt saved his life, Kristin begins to buckle up whenever she gets in car. This is an example of:
a. normative social influence.
b. indirect social influence.
c. social pressure.
d. informational social influence.
Conformity is highest in cultures exhibiting:
a. low complexity, high affluence, and low heterogeneity.
b. high complexity, low affluence, and high heterogeneity.
c. high complexity, high affluence, and high heterogeneity.
d. low complexity, low affluence, and low heterogeneity.
In a later variation on his conformity experiment, Asch found that increasing the size of the group past ________ confederates produced negligible additional influence.
c. fifteen or sixteen
d. three or four
Individuals in the minority are best able to exert influence over a majority if they:
a. make it clear that they are always willing to challenge the group.
b. present a variety of different, even contradictory, arguments.
c. establish themselves as competent insiders by first conforming to the majority.
d. present themselves as unwilling to conform to the majority.
The influence that produces conformity through a person's fears of the negative social consequences of appearing deviant is called:
a. private conformity.
b. normative influence.
c. minority influence.
d. the autokinetic effect.
People are more likely to comply when hearing ________ than when hearing ________.
a. no reasons for a request; empty reasons for a request
b. a slowly spoken request; quickly spoken requests
c. large requests; small requests
d. an unusual request; usual requests
Women are more likely to conform than men when:
a. they are questioned about gender-neutral topics.
b. they are in public.
c. they are questioned about female topics.
d. each gender is asked questions about topics relevant to the opposite sex.
The tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, and behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms is called:
What is the main difference between Asch and Sherif's conformity studies?
a. Asch used the autokinetic effect, while Sherif did not.
b. The Sherif participants were unsure of the correct answer; the Asch participants knew which choice was correct.
c. In Sherif's study, there was a social pressure; in the Asch study there was no social pressure.
d. A majority of Asch's participants conformed; most of Sherif's did not conform.
As a rule, Ilene always wears pants. When a friend invites her to his wedding, Ilene decides to wear a dress so as not to "stick out." This is an example of ________ influence and ________ conformity.
a. normative; private
b. informational; public
c. normative; public
d. informational; private
The most effective way to resist compliance traps is to:
a. reciprocate the requester's actions.
b. base judgments on instincts rather than thinking too much about them.
c. always refuse a first request.
d. be vigilant.
Sherif's (1936) study of the autokinetic effect best demonstrates:
a. normative influence and private conformity.
b. normative influence and public conformity.
c. informational influence and public conformity.
d. informational influence and private conformity.
Which of the following is not true about the effectiveness of the door-in-the-face technique?
a. It works because of reciprocal concessions.
b. It works because people feel a sense of psychological commitment after agreeing to an initial request.
c. It works because of perceptual contrast.
d. It does not work if the first request is so extreme that it comes across as insincere.
Recent conformity research by Baron et al. (1996) shows that when confederates give the wrong answer, their behavior leads to the most conformity among participants who are completing a(n) ________ task and who are ________ motivated to get the right answer.
a. difficult; not
b. easy; not
c. easy; highly
d. difficult; highly
According to Moscovici, majorities derive their power to influence others by virtue of their:
a. sheer number.
b. chains of command.
c. social connections.
d. informational connections.
The idea that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to target persons is most consistent with:
a. social impact theory.
b. the consistency hypothesis.
c. the foot-in-the-door-technique.
d. the authoritarian personality.
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