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51 terms

Industrialization

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Enclosure
A large field which were enclosed in order to test new agricultrual ideas and methods
Jethro Tull
invented seed drill
crop rotation
the system of growing crops in different fields but leaving one field fallow in order for the soil to rejuvinate itself
Industrialization
The process of developing machine production fo goods
Factors of production
labor, land , and capital
John Kay
invented flying shuttle
James Hargreaves
invented spinning jenny
Richard Arkwright
invented the water frame
Samuel Compton
invented spinning mule
Edmund Cartwright
invented power loom
Eli Whitney
invented cotton gin
Jeremy Benthem
Utilitarianism judge by utility in market
Utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
James Watt
invented the steam engine
Mathew Bolton
invented the steam engine
entrepreneur
someone who is willing to take risks in business
Robert Fulton
invented the steam boat
turnpikes
roads that you had to pay a toll to use
factory
a place where machines were used to make products
locomotive
steam engine on wheels
urbanization
movement of people to cities
slums
poor, run-down urban neighborhoods
Factory Act
limited working hours for children. limited to 10 hours
Luddites
workeres who destoyed the machines because they thought the machines were taking their place
Samuel Slater
built the spinning machine fronm memory in the U.S.
Moses Brown
opened the first factory in Rhode Island
Francis Cabot Lowell
manufactured cloth in Lowell which truned Lowell into a major textile town
John D.Rockerfeller
founder of Standard Oil
Andrew Carnegie
founder of Carnegie Steel Company
corporation
a business owned by stock holders who share in its profits but are no personally responsible for its debts
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Founder of the rail road
Adam Smith
he wrote the Wealth of Nations and defended laissez-faire economics
Thomas Malthus
he wrote An Essay on the Principal of the Population, argued that population grows faster than the food supply
David Riccardo
he wrote the Principal of the Iron Law of Wages, argued that the more money people get the more kids they have which leads to poverty
John Stuart Mill
he believed in Utilitarianism. Tried to improve the lives of the workers, end class differences, prison reform
Robert Owen
He build affordable housing near factories,improved working conditions, outlawed child labor
laissez-faire econmocis
let the market regualte itslef by the laws of supply and demand
Marxism
plitical philosophty founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels stating that the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoise and a classless soceity would be formed
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
union
a voluntary group of workers who align themselves based on their trade
strike
when a union refuses to work
collective bargaining
negotiations between workers and their employers
Factory Act
a law which required children to be over the age of nine to work, there was also a restriction on the length of the day
Mines Act
A law passed that prohibited women and children to work in mines
Ten Hours Act
A law which limited the work day to 10 hours for women and children
William Wilberforce
Fought for the the abolition of slavery in England
Jane Addams
She ran settlement houses and was one of the earliest feminists
Horace Mann
He supported free public education for everyone
Alex de Tocqueville
A French writer who supported prison reform.