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Option E: Leisure, sport and tourism - IB Geography
Terms in this set (47)
Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time (IB definition)
A physical activity involving a set of rules or customs. The activity may be competitive (IB definition)
Travel away from home for at least one night for the purpose of leisure (IB definition).
NOTE: Some would argue that tourism does not have to involve a night away from home. Day trips could also be
included in a definition of tourism.
There are many possible sub-divisions of tourism including ecotourism, heritage tourism and sustainable tourism
A leisure time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment (IB definition)
Tourism within the country of residency.
Tourism outside the country of residency.
Day trips (day
Visits to places of interest e.g. the beach or a ruin, but without staying overnight.
Mass tourism or
Large-scale tourism when flights, accommodation, tours and transfers are booked together and often part
of a group.
Tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people. It attempts to have a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim is to bring about a positive experience for local people, tourism companies and tourists. It is not the same as ecotourism, but ecotourism comes under umbrella of sustainable tourism [link to models of sustainability]
Responsible travel to fragile, pristine and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and (often) small scale (alternative to mass tourism)
Tourism based on historic legacy as its main attraction e.g. natural landscape, historical buildings.
A location that attracts a large number of tourists. Gruyères in Switzerland would be considered a honeypot location.
Money that is generated in a country but then leaves the country. Money that is lost from a tourist destination. For example, a large number of TNCs operating in a country may send the money earned back to their home country e.g.Intercontinental or Hilton.
When an initial amount of spending (investment in services/facilities for example) leads to increased spending by tourists and so results in an increase in national income greater than the initial amount of spending. For example, investment in tourism helps create more jobs and generate demand for locally produced goods (food etc); more income is earned which enters the local economy
When people travel to other countries to undergo medical procedures e.g. dentistry or plastic surgery. This
is done either because medical standards are better in the destination, or because medical treatment is
cheaper in the destination.
Pre-existing tourist attractions that often exist naturally e.g. the weather, wildlife, beaches, indigenous
people or mountains.
Facilities that have been purposefully built for tourists e.g. hotels, restaurants, golf courses and airports.
Tourism that goes to view wildlife in its natural habitat. Safaris are very common in Africa e.g. Kenya,
Tanzania and Botswana
A settlement where the primary function is tourism. This includes a hotel complex (IB definition)
Resorts are normally associated with the coast. Large hotel complexes are considered to be resorts.
Trips that either go to play sport or view sport. Trips to the football World Cup or Olympics are becoming
much more common.
Hotels or resorts that tourists visit for health treatments. This may include massages, detoxes or mud
When tourists pay a hotel complex one price which includes all meals, drinks, entertainment, activities, etc.
All-inclusive holidays are very common in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean.
Airlines that offer cheaper than normal flights, by removing add ons like airport check-in, in flight meals,
checked baggage and pre-selected seats.
Primary tourist/recreational resources
Refer to pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation (i.e. not built specifically for the purpose) including climate, scenery, wildlife, cultural and heritage sites, and indigenous people (IB definition)
Secondary tourist/recreational resources
Refer to accommodation, catering, entertainment and shopping (developed with tourism in mind) (IB definition)
Those resources developed with tourism in mind
Tourist attractions (factors affecting tourism - positive)
Climate (Maldives, Mediterranean), Landscape (New Zealand), Culture (Cambodia), Sport (surfing in Australia, Olympic Games)
Tourism deterrents (factors affecting tourism - negative)
Hazards (earthquakes), Political unrest (Greece, Sri Lanka), Disease (SARS in East Asia), exchange rate (reduced spending power)
Butler's Tourism Model (a product life cycle model - the product in this case being tourism)
Tourist areas development in six main stages: (1) exploration; (2) involvement ; (3) development; (4) consolidation; (5) stagnation; (6) decline or (6) rejuvenation
Plog's Model (the focus in this case is the tourists)
There are five groups of tourists (1) allocentrics - hardened, independent travellers looking for new destinations; (2) near-allocentrics - still adventurous, listen to allocentrics, quick to visit new destinations, greater volume than allocentrics; (3) mid-centrics - travel in groups/package holidays; take short breaks and expect developed tourist facilities, (1) and (2) avoid places frequented by (3); (4) near-psychocentrics - place is well-established, but possibly overcrowded and unkempt, many tourists stop going, but near-psychocentrics keep on going as they like consistency and don't like trying new things; (5) Psychocentrics - destination in decline, but these tourists keep visiting as they don't like change and like to know exactly what they are getting
Refers to the relationship between space and time. In particular it looks at the amount of space that can be crossed in a set period of time. With the advancement of faster forms of transportation, notably the jet plane it is now possible to travel much greater distances in a shorter space of time.
Carrying capacity (tourism)
The maximum number of visitors/participants that a site/event can satisfy at one time. It is customary to distinguish between environmental and perceptual carrying capacity (IB definition)
Environmental carrying capacity
The maximum number before the local environment becomes damaged (IB definition)
Perceptual carrying capacity
The maximum number before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact, such as noise, to be excessive. e.g. young mountain bikers may be more crowd-tolerant than elderly walkers (IB definition)
Related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.
Main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment.
Involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment.
Also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilamanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late.
A country's or business's basic underlying structure and framework - e.g. the buildings, transport network and water supply for example
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI refers to money spent in a country by a foreign company or country. Countries try and attract FDI by setting up enterprise zones, offering low tax rates and other incentives
Hawkin's Model of Carrying Capacity of Tourism
A model (white centre, and coloured ring) showing how positive attitudes which may exist between tourists and local residents can change and become more negative as the threshold of the carrying capacity is reached.
1) Model centre - relationship between tourists and local residents
2) Outer edge - limit of tourist numbers that an area can support
3) Inner edge - minimum or threshold number of tourists in an area
4) Width of ring will change depending on a number of variables
The most important variables relate to safety and security (safe to crime); perceptions and relations between locals and tourists and nature of contact (positive to crowding/alienation) between different cultures (positive to negative). A range of geographic factors (ecological, economic, political, physical, social, local resident and visitor experiences) can affect an area's tourism carrying capacity
Improving an area that has been experiencing a period of decline e.g. in East London, deindustrialisation contributed to a period of decline. This area was selected as the primary venue for the Olympics and this has contributed to regeneration within this area
An area which has been previously built-on
The process of an area being improved by the people that live there. Young professionals might move into an area that is deprived (houses will be cheaper). As the income of the professionals increases they might make improvements to their house and local facilities e.g. park areas. The income of the professionals may also attract new businesses like restaurants. The movement of higher economic groups into an area
An area that is relatively poor. It may have an income level lower than the national average, or unemployment higher than the national average or disinvestment or all of the aforementioned and more.
Social sustainability means benefiting local people long-term. This might be done through infrastructure improvements, provision of affordable housing or job creation
Economic sustainability means benefiting the economy long term. It might mean increasing the income of an area, keeping inflation low or eliminating debt
Environmental sustainability means reducing the impact on the environment. It might be using renewable energy, developing public transport or reforesting areas
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