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Terms in this set (44)
the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. Refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action
Persons are motivated to satisfy certain needs (certain levels of needs). Include The Hierarchy of Needs, ERG Theory, Two-Factor Approach to Motivation, and Acquired Needs Theory
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
A content theory developed by Abraham Maslow that states that needs can be classified in five categories and are satisfied in hierarchical order, starting at bottom. Levels include: Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem, Self-actualization
human physical needs (e.g.-food, water). Bottom of the pyramid
(Security) safe, physical, and emotional environment, performance, and stability. People tend not to like change, even if change will improve your life.
(Social)- friendship, acceptance by others
(ego)- recognition and appreciation from others and a positive self image (very much related- need a positive self image for people to recognize and appreciate you)
self fulfillment, competence, developing one's full potential. Psychologists challenge the notion of self actualization because all other four needs conform to the deprivation theory (the more you have, the less you want) but with self actualization, the more you have, the more you want. Psychologists say if this is the case, it can't be a need.
Alderfer's content theory that is a modification of Maslow's Hierarchy of Need theory. Includes three categories of needs: Existence needs (need for physical well being), Relatedness needs (needs for satisfactory relationships with others), and Growth needs (needs that focus on development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence).
part of the ERG theory that says failure to meet a high order need may trigger a regression to an already fulfilled lower order need
Content theory that says center of the scale is neutral, meaning that workers are neither satisfied or dissatisfied. Herzberg believed that two entirely separate dimensions contribute to an employee's behavior at work. One is Hygiene Factors that involves the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers (working conditions, pay, company policies, interpersonal relationships) that when removed, these dissatisfiers just remove dissatisfaction, they do not cause people to become highly satisfied or motivated. The other is Motivators. These focus on high level needs and include achievement, recognition, responsibility, and opportunity for growth. The absence of these creates a neutral feeling towards your job.
Acquire Needs Theory
Content theory by McClelland that says that certain types of needs are acquired through an individual's lifetime (people are not born with these needs but may learn them throughout their life experiences). Three needs are: Need for achievement, Need for affiliation, and Need for power.
Simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. It focuses on changing or modifying employees on the job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards and punishments.
name given to the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior. Basic assumption underlying behavior modification is the law of effect (behavior that is positively reinforced tends to be repeated. Behavior that is not reinforced tends not to be repeated). Behavior is influenced by its consequences.
anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited.
when behavior is followed by positive consequences, makes behavior more likely to occur. If employee does something good, you should give rewards, bonuses, and promotions. Administration of a pleasant or rewarding consequence following a desired behavior, such as praise, financial benefits, recognition, etc. Positive reinforcement does help to improve performance, and nonfinancial reinforcements work just as well as financial incentives
Avoidance Learning (Negative Reinforcement)
removal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved, thereby encouraging and strengthening the desired behavior. Behavior is more likely to be repeated. Ex: Taking an Advil for headache removes pain, more likely to take Advil the next time you get a headache.
imposition of negative consequences on an employee, following undesirable behavior. Behavior is far less likely to be repeated. Use of punishments (verbal reprimands to suspensions or firings) in organizations is controversial and often criticized because it fails to indicate the correct behavior. It's more effective of getting rid of behavior than extinction, but more negative characteristics associated with it.
When behavior is followed by no consequences. Behavior is therefore less likely to be repeated. Withholding of a positive reward, undesirable behavior is essentially ignored and will gradually disappear.
Excellent behavior is not always obvious; therefore excellent behavior is frequently ignored. If it is unrewarded, then the behavior will eventually go away. Rewards are often unrelated to person's performance so if a person looks like they're busy, they will probably get rewarded. Managers focus on mistakes and use punishment to change behavior since mistakes are easier to spot.
deals with mental process individuals engage in when contemplating a behavior. Explain how people select behavioral actions to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful. Includes Goal-setting theory, Equity Theory, and Expectancy Theory
described by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, proposes that managers can increase motivation and enhance performance by setting specific, challenging goals, then helping people keep track of their progress toward goal achievement by providing timely feedback. Key components of goal setting theory: goal specificity (degree to which goals are concrete and ambiguous), goal difficulty (hard goals are more motivating than easy ones), goal acceptance (employees have to "buy into" goals and be committed to them, and feedback (people get info on how well they are doing in progressing toward goal achievement)
focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others, developed by J. Stacy Adams. It proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance. The most common methods for reducing a perceived inequity are: Change work effort, Change outcomes, Change perceptions, Leave the job.
suggests that motivation depends on one's expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards. A process theory that deals with mental process individuals engage in when contemplating a behavior. Based on individual's effort, performance, and outcome associated with high performance.
Effort-Performance Expectancy (E>P)
probability that effort will lead to high performance. Determining whether putting effort into a task will lead to high performance. For this expectancy to be high, individuals must have tools, self-confidence, the ability, previous experience, necessary equipment, and opportunity to perform.
Performance-Outcome Expectancy (P>O)
probability that high performance will lead to desired rewards (outcomes). Deals with the credibility of MGMT. If Expectancy is high, individual will be highly motivated, if expectancy is that high performance will not produce the desired outcome, motivation will be lower.
The value of the rewards (outcomes). Deals with reward attractiveness. If good performance outcomes are not valued by employees, motivation will be low.
Social Learning Theory
Related to the reinforcement perspective but it proposes that an individuals' motivation can result not just from direct experience of rewards and punishments but also from the person's thoughts and beliefs and his or her observations of other people's behavior. 3 important elements are Vicarious learning, self-reinforcement, and self-efficacy
Social Learning Theory element. (AKA observational learning) occurs when an individual sees others perform certain behaviors and get rewarded for them. Managers can enhance individual's motivation to perform desired behaviors by ensuring individual: has chance to observe desirable behaviors, correctly perceives behaviors, remembers behaviors, has necessary skills to perform behaviors, and sees what behaviors are rewarded by firm
Social Learning Theory element (AKA self-control) refers to an individual motivating himself by setting goals and ways of reaching them and then providing positive reinforcement to himself when goals are achieved. Managers can encourage self reinforcement by enabling people to find intrinsic satisfaction in their jobs and giving people flexibility and autonomy to set goals and determine how to achieve them.
Social Learning Theory element. Individual's belief about his or her ability to successfully accomplish a specific task or outcome. Our beliefs can shape our motivation. Managers increase self efficacy by ensuring that people have the training, skills, and resources they need to perform well and by expressing confidence and trust in employees abilities.
application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction. Managers should try to make work interesting and intrinsically motivating. Should try to satisfy needs of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
technique to increase job enrichment where employees systematically move from one job to another to provide variety and stimulation.
incorporating high-level motivators into the work, including responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement.
technique to increase job enrichment that involves combining a series of tasks into one broader job
altering jobs to increase both the quality of employee's work experience and their productivity
Job Characteristics Design Model
Consists of 3 major parts: 5 Core dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback) that you can change to make job more interesting, Critical psychological states, Employee growth-need strength.
number of diverse activities that compose a job and the number of skills used to perform it. Extent a person is required to use many skills on the job
Degree to which an employee performs a total job with a recognizable beginning and ending. The degree job requires completion of an entire piece of work from beginning to end
The degree to which the job is perceived as being important and having impact on the company and lives of other people.
Degree to which the worker has freedom, discretion, self determination, and independence in planning and carrying out tasks.
The extent to which doing the job provides clear info about the effectiveness of the performance back to the employee.
is power sharing, the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in an organization
means that people enjoy their jobs and are satisfied with their work conditions, contribute enthusiastically to meeting team and organizational goals, and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization.
Recommended textbook explanations
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