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Exam Study for the Weekend
Terms in this set (147)
According to Freud what part of the human personality is selfish and seeks to maximize pleasure
Lack of empathy, guilt, fear, conscience, and superego are descriptors of
sociopaths or psychopaths
mental tests to discover personality characteristics of criminals are known as
According to Ellis (2005) male sex hormones in the brain increase the probability of
once an approach to treat mental illnes, the surgical removal of parts of the frontal lobes of the brain is known as
Cesare Lombroso is known for his work in
Attempts to construct typical characteristics of certain offenders is known as
Positivist criminology is largely centered on
T or F: BF Skinner is famous for his work in biological positivism
What theorists suggested the existence of a "criminal personality"
Yochelson and Samenow
T or F: Variables such as diet, environmental pollution, endocrine imbalance, and allergies have been claimed to have criminogenic influence
cities grow in concentric zones. loop, transition, workers, residential, commuters. most crime is in the transition zone
Shaw and McKay
relate concentric zones with crime. When populations rapidly grow, there is persistent poverty, heterogenity the core values of society would be sorely tested and stained. Delinquency is higher in unstable zones. Crime is rooted in social disorganization. They used maps and official stats.
Sampson and Wilson
Introduced race into Shaw and McKay. rejected the claim that urban culture is an easy way to explain crime and that there is little we can do about it. Social disorganization creates different ways of considering social dynamics as well as different norms based on social position alter how people view their communities
Groups shared belief of the extent to which it can successfully complete a task
Differential association. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others and the principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs with intimate personal relationships. Antisocial behavior is learned in the same way that law abiding behavior is learned. Excess contacts with hose who advocate criminal behavior. looking glass self.
operant conditioning and behaviorism. imitation, differential association, differential reinforcement, definitions
personal anxiety or isolation,normlessness, produced by rapidly shifting moral views
Anomie to refer to sense of normlessness that people feel during times of rapid social change when the ususal ways of relating to eachother are confused by impersonalization, detailed divisions of labor and breakdowns of moral order.
social norms have two types of concerns: social goals and the means that one uses to pursue cultural goals. Five modes of adaptation: conformity, innovation, ritual, retreat, rebellion
Crime and delinquency as adaptions to stress. 3 major sources of stress: strain is caused by the disjunction between just or fair outcomes and actual outcomes, strain is caused by removal of positively valued stimuli from the individual, caused by presentation of negative stimuli. Negative experiences and relationships lead to crime in order to regain what one has lost, retaliate or to escape anger/strain.
Psychoanalysis to examine effect of personality on delinquency. Three aspects of social control: lack proper internal controls, breakdown in internal controls, absence of or conflict in social rules
social control theory. bonded to conventional society and individuals
Primarily concerned with lower class males in gangs. Offenses did little to give them advantage. When lower class boys fail to meet middle class standards they experience status frustration and react in ways that cause delinquent behavior. "I oppose therefore I am"
Cloward and Ohlin
Differential Opportunity. Three types of delinquent subcultures in which boys immerse themselves to combat the strain in their social class: criminal pattern, conflict pattern "warrier", retreatist pattern "drug addict"
Wolfgang and Ferracuti
Why certain groups consistently produce violent behavior. A violent response can be required. learned response that allows individuals to survive
The code of the street. Street parents can't cope and privilege parents teach their children to stand up for themselves.
juveniles tagged as deviants and how tag can follow them through Juvenile Justice systems and life and influence how others view them
Primary and Secondary deviance. Primary: label once caught. Secondary: more damaging. told lazy so quits studying. being caught and being labeled
Radical Nonintervention contends that the best thing that can be done for many minor offenders is to ignore their deviant acts
stigmatizing shaming: negative effect. Street gangs embarrass and shame offender so do not repeat. reintegrative: appropriate and informal
egoism as why people broke the law in capitalist societies. look out for own interests. selfish competition is inherent. break law to survive and can't live up to middle class measuring rod.
Divert attention from exploitive nature of capitalism and focus it on the offenses of the impoverished people.
Many impoverished societies have low crime rates. Really it is relative deprivation
Post Modern Criminology. The centrality of language, ability to use and comprehend. Partial knowledge and provisional truth. Deconstruction, difference and possibly hidden implications.
Cultural Criminology. Media Filter the images they put out and go for excitement.
Pepinsky and Quinney
Peacemaking Criminology. Hollistic view, responsibility only to individuals but also to social structure that accepts and allows it to happen. Steps in peacemaking pyramid: nonviolence, inclusion, social justice, correct means, ascertainable criteria, categorical imperative
Life Course Persistant, and Adolesence limited Crime
Sampson and Laub
Pathways and turning points
Moral development. ethical and moral behavior is gradually built up until a certain age children arent able to evaluate situations requiring complex moral reasoning. until age 13 children aren't cognitively equipped to move beyond conventionally morality. Stage 4 is where most law abiding behavior (approximately 25% able to move onto conventional morality). Moral decision capability doesn't mean moral behavior
Biosocial theory. Five objections to biosocial theories: biosocial theories are deterministic and socially dangerous, can't be any genes for crime because crime is socially constructed, society might give upon trying to rehab delinquents and adult offenders, crime can't have a biological basis because crime rates change rapidly and changes in genes require many generations, biological theories tend to be insensitive to people's feelings.
all behavior can have a genetic component. Genes help design our temperament and personality the environment can influence.
Differential Susceptibility. The same factors that make some individuals more vulnerable to adverse circumstances also make them more sensitive to beneficial ones.
Relationship between the physical appearance of body and temperament of the mind. Body Types. Mesomorphs are more violent.
Franz Joseph Gall
Phrenology and topography of the skull
examined twins in different environments (identical). criminal behavior can be inherited
Moral developments of girls and some additional individuals. boys have broad moral principles (justice fairness), girls think in terms of compassion. Three stages of Development in women:
Orientation through individual survival. goodness as self sacrifice. morality of nonviolence.
Criticism: too sweeping
Proponent of eugenics. Feeblemindness of prisoners was 28-89%. Can't evaluate/control their behavior, can't compete in the workplace, can't negotiate rules and procedures of justice system
Intelligence Tests and education
Psychological needs conflict with needs of society. If stages not completed well then can cause problems with others. Stages can be repeated later with therapy
Sheldon and Gluecks
500 delinquent and 500 nondelinquent boys had same personality characteristics, delinquent boys shared six key characteristics that contributed to delinquency and helped them survive in more conventional ways: Extroversion, impulsivity, hostility, fearlessness, suspicion, low self esteem
Role of groups and social organizations in human behavior. linked crime to broader social changes. Anomie: normlessness in society.
Anomie/strain results from discrepancy between societal goals and means available to achieve those goals. Modes of adaptation: conform, innovate, ritualist, retreatist, rebel
Negative experiences and relationships. Leads to crime in order to: regain what one has lost, retaliate, escape anger/strain
Lower class reaction theory. lower class delinquency as nonutilitarian, malicious and negativistic. Crime as response or inability to live up to middle class values
Focal Concerns Theory. Considers trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate and autonomy for understanding crime of lower class
Akers and Burgess
Differential Reinforcement. Balance of anticipated or actual rewards or punishments that follow or result in consequences or behavior
Cohen and Felson
Routine Activities Theory. Volume of crime will be related to the nature of normal everyday patterns of interaction.
Social Process Theories
Emphasizes criminality as a learned or culturally transmitted process
Critique of Anomie theories
Overall strong, but: Anomie/strain theory-emphasizes monetary goals fails to account for violent crime. Lower Class Reaction Theory-emphasizes low class crime excluding stressors beyond social class. Differential Opportunity- emphasizes lower class crime, too simplistic
Cloward and Ohlin
Differential Opportunity. How one adapts depends on availability of illegitimate opportunities. Subcultures: criminal, conflict, retreatist:drug addict.
While human behavior is influenced by outside forces, still some element of free will or individual responsibility
Containment theory. Individuals have internal and external controls to prevent them from engaging in crime.
Gottfredson and Hirschi
General Theory of Crime. Low self control in pursuit of self interest causes crime.
Power Control. Crimes motivated by risktaking are reduced by strong parental controls
quitting criminal activity
Antisocial Potential. Long vs. Short Potential.
emphasis on criminal behavior. consensus worldview
Emphasis on criminalization of behavior. Conflict worldview.
Moral Entreprenuers. Agents or officials who are concerned with creating and labeling new categories of deviance.
Groups vying for power
Powerful groups control the state
Conflict results from individual differences which develop into stratified systems
Deviance is political rather than moral
Social Reality of Crime
Father of Black criminology
The rich get richer and the poor gets prison. acts that are criminalized are usually those of the poor, system fails to get wealthy and suites vs streets.
Mental Hospital increases admin on full moons
Lieber and Sherin
lunar cycles and homocides. gravity and pressure influence behavior
T or F Theories are equivalent to laws and facts.
Which of the following states that violent crime increases toward the equator?
Thermic Law of Crime
What theorist would be most likely to argue that criminal law serves the interest of the ruling class?
T or F Classical criminological theory assumes that criminals are hedonistic and rational actors.
"Three Strikes" laws exemplify what theory of criminology?
T or F According to Cesare Beccaria punishment should be based on the seriousness of crime and not its ability to deter.
What philosopher is famous for his Panopticon?
Which criminologist is known as the first to use criminal statistics?
T or F Karl Marx viewed the history of all existing societies as one of class struggle
Which philosophy states that the main purpose of life is to maximize pleasure while reducing pain?
Which of the following are used as justification for punishing criminals?
e) all of the above
The Salem Witch Trials demonstrate what theory of crime causation?
Developing policies with the purpose of improving the physical and social environments to decrease crime is an example of what theory type?
T or F Demonological theory views criminals as rational, free actors
T or F According to Karl Marx, in capitalism, the burgeoisie is exploited by the proletariat.
T or F Cesare Beccaria philosophies surrounding punishment were considered radical during his time.
T or F. Barack Obama was the first president to visit a federal prison while holding office.
T or F US has highest incarceration rate in the world.
The earliest theories of crime causation were:
T or F Cesare Beccaria advocated the use of torture as a means of exacting confessions.
T or F Demonological theory involved unpredictably cruel and inconsistent criminal justice policy.
Jeremy Bentham advocated for "the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number". The term that refers to this approach is:
T or F Charles Darwin coauthored the communist Manifesto with Fredrich Engels.
F. Karl Marx
T or F Horace Miner's 1956 study of Nacirema focuses on the life of citizens living in the US
T or F Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, and Sigmund Freud have all been very influential in development of criminological theories.
The belief that there is a survival of the fittest in society is known as:
Astrology, Phrenology and Physiognomy are examples of?
Criteria of positivism
Objectivity, Causality, Measurement
What social theorist is known for developing the doctrine of Positivism?
T or F According to the positivist approach, the logic of inquiry (investigation) is the same across all sciences.
Mesomorphs, endomorphs, and ectomorphs are all examples of:
T or F Cesare Lombroso argued that social factors (ie class structure) are primarily responsible for crime.
The theory that criminals are throwbacks to an earlier more primitive form of human evolution is an example of:
Examined twins in different environments (identical). criminal behavior can be inherited.
____ theories state that interactions between biological and social factors contribute to crime
Demonological school major themes/concepts and theorists
criminal as evil, sinner, supernatural pawn. Traditional authority
group characteristics, physical and social ecological impacts on criminality. (Quetlet and Querry) Geographical and climatic impacts on criminality (Liber and Sherin)
Criminal as rational, hedonistic, free actor (Beccaria, Bentham). Incapacitation, punishment and deterence (Wilson, becker)
Capitalism, social class inequality, and economic conditions cause crime (Marx, Bonger)
Physical Stigmata, atavism, and biological inheritance cause criminality (Lombroso, Ferri, Garofalo)
Mental Deficience (Goring)
Physical inferiority (Hooton)
Brain disorders, twin studies, XYY syndrome, physiolgoical disorders (Moniz, Christiansen, Jacobs)
Unconscious repression of sexual instincts (Freud, Eysenck, Skinner)
Criminal personality, extroversion, inadequate conditioning, IQ (Hirschi, Hindelang)
Anomie, subcultural learning, and elite dominance cause crime (Durkheim, Sutherland, Quinney)
On Crimes and Punishments. Responsible for the abolition of torture as a legitimate means of exacting confessions. "Let the punishment fit the crime". Proposed the following: Laws shoudl be made by legislatures, and they should be specific. The role of judges is only to determine guilt and follow strictly to the letter of the law in determining punishment. Judges should not interpret laws. The seriousness of crime should be determined by the harm it inflicts on society and be based on the pleasure/pain principle. Punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime and its ability to deter. Should not exceed that necessary for deterrence. Better to prevent crimes than punish them.
Laws should provide the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number. "utilitarian hedonism". Came up with the Panopticon "inspection house". Hedonism: maximize pleasure and reduce pain.
Seductions of crime: moral and sensual attractions in doing evil. supports Beccaria's notion of the pleasure or thrill of evil outweighing the fear of punishment.
assessed Katz's theory noting that such thrill related property crime is influenced by age,gender, and strain associated with inadequate economic opportunities
advocated a cost benefit analysis of crime, reminiscent of hedonistic doctine. individuals freely choose crime based on their estimate of their likelihood of being caught.
Rational Choice Theory
Cornish and Clarke. offenders weigh the opportunities, costs and benefits of particular crimes. Individuals are not purely rational in their decision making but they do consider the costs and benefits.
"just deserts" "three strikes and you are out, and mandatory sentencing policies.
"Just deserts concept"
individuals must pay for their wrongdoing and that they deserve or have it (the punishment) coming. lex talionis (law of the talons) an eye for an eye.
"Three strikes and you're out" legislation
third time offenders receive very severe punishment. found not to work because juries often reluctant to convict a third time offender and judges oppose such limitations on their discretion.
"An Essay on Moral Statistics". first book in scientific criminology. relied on shaded areas of maps in order to descrive and analyze variations in French official crime statistics. wealthier areas higher property crime.
criminal statistics. impact of group factors nad characteristics. Treatise on Man and the Development of his Faculties. Remarkable consistency with which crimes appeared annually and varied with respect to age, sex, economic conditions, and other sociological variables. speaks against crime being solely a matter of individual choice. Research on the Propensity for Crime at different ages. Age as the greatest predictor of crime peaking at 25. Thermic law of crime. Relative Deprivation
emphasized the notion of born criminality.
Criminality and Economic Conditions. criminal law primarily protects the interests of the propertied class. Capitalism was viewed as precipitating crime by creating unequal access to the necessities of life as well as by viewing success in economic competition as a sign of status. Claims: notions of what constitutes crime vary among societies and reflect existing notions of morality. Criminal law serves the interest of the ruling class in capitalist system and is enforced by force rather than by consensus. Hedonism is natural among people but capitalism encourages egoism.All groups are prone to crime in capitalist society but seldom are the crimes of wealthy punished.
Basic Premises of Positivism
Measurement (quantification), objectivity (neutrality), and causuality (determinisim).
predict human behavior by studying the alignment of the stars.
determine intelligence and personlaity on the basis of the size and shape of the skull
measuring facial and other body characteristics as indicative of human personality
lombroso's theory that criminals could be denoted on the basis of their facial appearance
Criminal Sociology. Four types of criminals: insane, born, occasional, and criminal by passion. Crime expands to fit the amount of control machinery assigned to it.
The English Convict. criminals were shorter, weighed less and were mentally defective. explained draftees 1/3 were feebleminded.
Physical Inferiority. Crime and the Man. there are physical differences between criminals and non criminals. crime is the resultant of the impact of environment upon low grade human organisms. tattoos, thin beard and body hair, thin eye brows and etc.
conditioning and relates to BF Skinner. behaviorial modification.
social learning theory thought processes of the person and the external sanctions. by observing other learn how to engage in aggression.
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