How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

1,045 terms

Foreign Service Officer Test - US Government

STUDY
PLAY
10th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Powers of states and people. Anything not in the constitution is left to the states.
11th amendment "immunity"?
Generally, a state is immune from suit by an individual. However, a state can consent to be sued, or Congress can abrogate a state's immunity, as long as it is within Congress' authority to do so (i.e. constitutional authority).
11th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1795): Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals, and limits ability of citizens to sue states in federal courts and under federal law.
12th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1804): Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the electoral college cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
13th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1865): Abolishes slavery and grants Congress power to enforce abolition.
14th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1868): Defines United States citizenship; prohibits states from abridging citizens' privileges or immunities and right to due process and the equal protection of the law; repeals the three-fifths compromise.
15th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1870): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a qualification for voting.
16th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1913): Authorizes unapportioned federal taxes on income.
17th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1913): Establishes direct election of senators.
18th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1919): Prohibited the manufacturing, importing, and exporting of beverage alcohol. Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment.
1973 Rehabilitation Act?
An American piece of legislation that guaranteed certain rights to people with disabilities.
19th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1920): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's sex as a qualification for voting.
1st Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, and to petition the government.
20th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1933): Changes details of Congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession. (lame duck ammendment)
21st Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment but permits states to retain prohibition and ban the importation of alcohol.
22nd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1951): Limits president to two terms.
23rd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1961): Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia.
24th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1964): Prohibits the federal government and the states from requiring the payment of a tax as a qualification for voting for federal officials. (poll taxes)
25th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1967): Changes details of presidential succession, provides for temporary removal of president, and provides for replacement of the vice president.
26th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1971): Prohibits the federal government and the states from using an age greater than 18 as a qualification to vote.
27th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
(1992): Limits congressional pay raises. Was one of original 12 bill of rights.
2nd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Right to keep and bear arms.
3rd Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Protection from quartering of troops.
4th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
527 groups
a political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activites so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election where a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted; these groups were important to the 2000 and 2004 elections
5th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, private property.
6th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Trial by jury, speedy trial, and other rights of the accused.
7th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Civil trial by jury.
8th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Prohibition of excessive bail, as well as cruel or unusual punishment.
9th Ammendment of the US Constitution?
Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights.
A man’s home is his castle
"A proverbial expression that illustrates the principle of individual privacy, which is fundamental to the American system of government. In this regard, the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitutionâ€"part of the Bill of Rightsâ€"prohibits “unreasonable searches and seizures.â€
A1, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 establishes the name of the Legislature to be The Congress, a bicameral, or two-part, body.
A1, Section 10 Constitution
Section 10, finally, prohibits the states from several things. They cannot make their own money, or declare war, or do most of the other things prohibited Congress in Section 9. They cannot tax goods from other states, nor can they have navies.
A1, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 defines the House of Representatives, known as the lower house of Congress. It establishes a few minimum requirements, like a 25-year-old age limit, and establishes that the people themselves will elect the members for two years each. The members of the House are divided among the states proportionally, or according to size, giving more populous states more representatives in the House. The leader of the House is the Speaker of the House, chosen by the members.
A1, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 defines the upper house of Congress, the Senate. Again, it establishes some minimum requirements, such as a 30-year-old age limit. Senators were originally appointed by the legislatures of the individual states, though this later changed. They serve for six years each. Each state has equal suffrage in the Senate, meaning that each state has the exact same number of Senators, two each, regardless of the population. This Section introduces the Vice-President, who is the leader of the Senate (called the President of the Senate); the Vice-President does not vote unless there is a tie.
A1, Section 4 Constitution
Section 4 says that each state may establish its own methods for electing members of the Congress, and mandates, or requires, that Congress must meet at least once per year.
A1, Section 5 Constitution
Section 5 says that Congress must have a minimum number of members present in order to meet, and that it may set fines for members who do not show up. It says that members may be expelled, that each house must keep a journal to record proceedings and votes, and that neither house can adjourn without the permission of the other.
A1, Section 6 Constitution
Section 6 establishes that members of Congress will be paid, that they cannot be detained while traveling to and from Congress, that they cannot hold any other office in the government while in the Congress.
A1, Section 7 Constitution
Section 7 details how bills become law. First, any bill for raising money (such as by taxes or fees) must start out in the House. All bills must pass both houses of Congress in the exact same form. Bills that pass both houses are sent to the President. He can either sign the bill, in which case it becomes law, or he can veto it. In the case of a veto, the bill is sent back to Congress, and if both houses pass it by a two-thirds majority, the bill becomes law over the President's veto. This is known as overriding a veto. There are a couple more options for the President. First, if he neither vetoes a bill nor signs it, it becomes a law without his signature after 10 days. The second option is called a pocket veto. It occurs if Congress sends the bill to the President and they then adjourn. If the President does not sign the bill within 10 days, it does not become law.
A1, Section 8 Constitution
Section 8 lists specific powers of Congress, including the power to establish and maintain an army and navy, to establish post offices, to create courts, to regulate commerce between the states, to declare war, and to raise money. It also includes a clause known as the Elastic Clause which allows it to pass any law necessary for the carrying out of the previously listed powers.
A1, Section 9 Constitution
Section 9 places certain limits on Congress. Certain legal items, such as suspension of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws are prohibited. No law can give preference to one state over another; no money can be taken from the treasury except by duly passed law, and no title of nobility, such as Prince or Marquis, will ever be established by the government.
A2, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 establishes the office of the President and the Vice-President, and sets their terms to be four years. Presidents are elected by the Electoral College, whereby each state has one vote for each member of Congress. Originally, the President was the person with the most votes and the Vice-President was the person with the second most, though this is later changed. Certain minimum requirements are established again, such as a 35-year minimum age. Presidents must also be a natural-born citizen of the United States. The President is to be paid a salary, which cannot change, up or down, as long as he in is office.
A2, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 gives the President some important powers. He is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and of the militia (National Guard) of all the states; he has a Cabinet to aid him, and can pardon criminals. He makes treaties with other nations, and picks many of the judges and other members of the government (all with the approval of the Senate).
A2, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 establishes the duties of the President: to give a state of the union address, to make suggestions to Congress, to act as head of state by receiving ambassadors and other heads of state, and to be sure the laws of the United States are carried out.
A2, Section 4 Constitution
Section 4 briefly discusses the removal of the President, called impeachment.
A3, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 establishes the Supreme Court, the highest court in the United States. It also sets the terms of judges, of both the Supreme Court and lower courts: that they serve as long as they are on "good behavior," which usually means for life (no Justice and only a few judges have ever been impeached). It also requires that judges shall be paid.
A3, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 sets the kinds of cases that may be heard by the federal judiciary, which cases the Supreme Court may hear first (called original jurisdiction), and that all other cases heard by the Supreme Court are by appeal. It also guarantees trial by jury in criminal court.
A3, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 defines, without any question, what the crime of treason is.
A4, Section 1 Constitution
Section 1 mandates that all states will honor the laws of all other states; this ensures, for example, that a couple married in Florida is also considered married by Arizona, or that someone convicted of a crime in Virginia is considered guilty by Wyoming.
A4, Section 2 Constitution
Section 2 guarantees that citizens of one state be treated equally and fairly like all citizens of another. It also says that if a person accused of a crime in one state flees to another, they will be returned to the state they fled from. This section also has a clause dealing with fugitive slaves that no longer applies.
A4, Section 3 Constitution
Section 3 concerns the admittance of new states and the control of federal lands.
A4, Section 4 Constitution
Section 4 ensures a republican form of government (which, in this case, is synonymous with "representative democracy," and both of which are opposed to a monarchical or aristocratic scheme - the state derives its power from the people, not from a king or gentry) and guarantees that the federal government will protect the states against invasion and insurrection.
Abbington Vs. Schempp
prohibited devotional bible reading in schools
academic freedom
The right of teachers and students to express their ideas in the classroom or in writing, free from political, religious, or institutional restrictions, even if these ideas are unpopular.
Acid rain
Precipitation in the form of rain, snow, or dust particles, the increased acidity of which is caused by environmental factors such as pollutants released into the atmosphere. (Ch. 21)
Activist approach
The view that judges should discern the general principles underlying the Constitution and its often vague language and assess how best to apply them in contemporary circumstances, in some cases with the guidance of moral or economic philosophy. (Ch. 14)
Activist court
Court that makes decisions that forge new ground such as Roe v. Wade or Brown v. Board of Education and establish precedent that often result in some form of legislative action
Activists
Individuals, usually outside of government, who actively promote a political party, philosophy, or issue they care about. (Ch. 6)
Ad hoc structure
A method of organizing a president's staff in which several task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends and advisers deal directly with the president. (Ch. 12)
ADEA
Discrimination in hiring, promotions, wages, or firing/layoffs. Statements or specifications in job notices or advertisements of age preference and limitations. Denial of benefits to older employees. An employer may reduce benefits based on age only if the cost of providing the reduced benefits to older workers is the same as the cost of providing full benefits to younger workers., Since 1978 it has prohibited mandatory retirement in most sectors, with phased elimination of mandatory retirement for tenured workers, such as college professors, in 1993. The ADEA was later amended in 1986 and again in 1991 by the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (Pub. L. 101-433) and the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-166). The ADEA differs from the Civil Rights Act in that the ADEA applies to firms of 20 or more workers (see 29 U.S.C. § 630(b)) rather than 15 or more workers, thus providing less protection.
Administrative Adjudication
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
Administrative Discretion
The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
Adversarial press
A national press that is suspicious of officialdom and eager to break an embarrassing story about a public official. (Ch. 10)
adversary system
a system of law where the court is seen as a neutral area where disputants can argue the merits of their cases.
Advise and consent
Power of the Senate regarding presidential appointments.
Affiliates
Local television stations that carry the programming of a national network
affirmative action
government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for african americans, women, and other victims of past discrimination.
AFL-CIO
Abbreviation for the American Federation of Laborâ€"Congress of Industrial Organizations, two groups that merged in 1955 to become the largest federation of labor unions in the United States. Member unions, including a variety of workers from machinists to musicians, make up over seventy percent of the unionized labor force in the United States. ‡ Though officially nonpartisan, the AFL-CIO has strong traditional ties with the Democratic party.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act?
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, prohibits employment discrimination against persons 40 years of age or older. The law also sets standards for pensions and benefits provided by employers and requires that information about the needs of older workers be provided to the general public.
Agenda setting
Policy goals typically set by political parties.
Alaskan pipeline
An oil pipeline that runs eight hundred miles from oil reserves in Prudhoe Bay, on the northern coast of Alaska, to the port of Valdez, on Alaska’s southern coast, from which the oil can be shipped to markets. Also called the Trans-Alaska pipeline. ‡ After oil was discovered in Prudhoe Bay in 1968, construction of the pipeline was delayed for several years, as conservationists warned against the effects of the pipeline on the ecosystems through which it would run. ‡ In 1989 an environmental disaster occurred when an oil tanker, the Exxon Valdez, ran aground and leaked millions of gallons of oil into Prince William Sound, causing the largest oil spill in U.S. history
alderman
(AWL-duhr-muhn) A member of a city council. Aldermen usually represent city districts, called wards, and work with the mayor to run the city government. Jockeying among aldermen for political influence is often associated with machine politics
amendment
Addition to the Constitution. Amendments require approval by two-thirds of both houses of Congress and three-quarters of the states.
American Civil Liberties Union
An organization founded in 1920 in the wake of the red scare to defend civil liberties. The ACLU has often defended the rights of individuals aligned with unpopular causes, including American communists and Nazis.
American Dream
the widespread belief that the US is a land of opportunity and that individual initiative and hard work can bring economic success
American Legion
The largest organization of American veterans, open to those who participated in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and subsequent conflicts, such as America’s war on terrorism. The American Legion has established an influential political position, gaining support in Congress and the federal executive branch for veterans’ interests; its efforts contributed to the creation of the Veterans Administration, now the Department of Veterans Affairs, which provides medical services and other benefits to veterans and their families. Traditionally conservative, the American Legion promotes patriotism and a strong military defense. (See also Veterans of Foreign Wars.)
American Party/Know-Nothings
Political party of the 1850s. The Know-Nothings (so named becaus of their secretiveness) pursued nativist goals, including severe limitations on immigration.
Americans with Disabilities Act (1991)
Act that required employers, schools, and public buildings to reasonably accommodate the physical needs of handicapped individuals by providing such things as ramps and elevators with appropriate facilities.
amicus curiae
"Friend of the Court"; a third party to a lawsuit who files a legal brief for the purpose of raising additional points of view in an attempt to influence a court's decision.
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Anti-federalists
Opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of largely independent states. Antifederalists successfully marshaled public support for a federal bill of rights. After ratification, they formed a political party to support states' rights. See also Federalists (Ch. 2)
antitrust legislation
federal laws that try to prevent a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade (examples: Sherman Act of 1890)
Appellate jurisdiction
Courts that have the right to review cases from lower courts on appeal. The highest federal court, the Supreme Court, is the final court of appeal.
apportionment
The allocation of seats in a legislature or of taxes according to a plan. In the United States Congress, for example, the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives is based on the relative population of each state, whereas the apportionment in the Senate is based on equal representation for every state. (See also gerrymander.)
appropriation
The grant of money by a legislature for some specific purpose. The authority to grant appropriations, popularly known as the power of the purse, gives legislatures a powerful check over executive branches and judicial branches, for no public money can be spent without legislative approval. Congress, for example, can approve or reject the annual budget requests of the executive branch for its agencies and programs, thereby influencing both domestic and foreign policy. (See also checks and balances and pork-barrel legislation.)
Appropriation bill
Congressional legislation that has spending as a basic characteristic. There are 13 appropriation bills that make up the federal budget.
arbitration
The settling of disputes (especially labor disputes) between two parties by an impartial third party, whose decision the contending parties agree to accept. Arbitration is often used to resolve conflict diplomatically to prevent a more serious confrontation.
Are GAAPs regulated by law?
The GAAP is not written in law, although the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires that it be followed in financial reporting by publicly traded companies.
aristocracy
Form of government in which power in concentrated in the hands of the upper social class.
Arms control
Agreements reached by countries with the aim of reducing the proliferation of military weapons such as the Antiballistic Missile Treaty (1972), the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (1972), the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (1979), the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1987), the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991), and the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1993).
Arraignment
Court hearing where a person accused of a crime is formally charged.
Article 1 of the US Constitution Cover?
Legislative Power
Article 2 of the US Constitution Cover?
Executive Power
Article 3 of the US Constitution Cover?
Judicial Power
Article 4 of the US Constitution Cover?
States Powers & Limits
Article 5 of the US Constitution Cover?
Process of Ammendment
Article 6 of the US Constitution Cover?
Federal Power
Article 7, Constitution
Article 7 details the method for ratification, or acceptance, of the Constitution: of the original 13 states in the United States, nine had to accept the Constitution before it would officially go into effect.
Articles of Confederation
The United States' first constitution. The government formed by the Aritcles of Confederation lasted from 1781 (the year before the end of the Revolutionary War) to 1789. The government under the Articles proved inadequate, because it did not have the power to collect taxes from the states, nor could it regulate foreign trade in order to generate revenue from import and export tariffs.
Articles of Impeachment
The specific charges brought against a president or federal judge by the House
Ashcroft Vs. ACLU
struck down a federal ban on virtual child pornography
Assistance program
A government program financed by general income taxes that provides benefits to poor citizens without requiring contributions from them. (Ch. 17)
Atomic Energy Commission
An agency of the United States government from 1946 to 1974 that was charged with controlling and developing the use of atomic energy for civilian and military purposes. In 1974, the AEC was abolished, and its duties were divided between two new agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration (now a part of the Department of Energy) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).
attentive public
those citizens who follow public affairs carefully
attorney general of the United States
The head of the United States Department of Justice and a member of the president’s cabinet. The attorney general is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government
Australian ballot
A government-printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public. (Ch. 6)
Authority
The right to use power. (Ch. 1)
Authorization legislation
Legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency. An authorization bill may grant permission to spend a certain sum of money, but that money does not ordinarily become available unless it is also appropriated. Authorizations may be annual, multiyear, or permanent. See also Appropriation (Ch. 13)
autocracy
Form of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual.
Background story (news)
A public official's explanation of current policy provided to the press on the condition that the source remain anonymous. (Ch. 10)
Baker Vs. Carr
Ordered state legislative districts to be as near to equal in population as possible. "one man one vote"
Bakke decision
(BAK-ee) An important ruling on affirmative action given by the Supreme Court in 1978. Allan Bakke, a white man, was denied admission to a medical school that had admitted black candidates with weaker academic credentials. Bakke contended that he was a victim of racial discrimination. The Court ruled that Bakke had been illegally denied admission to the medical school, but also that medical schools were entitled to consider race as a factor in admissions. The Court thus upheld the general principle of affirmative action.
Balanced budget
Public policy that advocates that the federal budget spends as much money as it receives. Attempt made to pass a constitutional amendment mandating this policy failed.
Benefit
Any satisfaction, monetary or nonmonetary, that people believe they will enjoy if a policy is adopted. See also Cost (Ch. 15)
Bill
A proposed law
Bill of attainder
A law that declares a person, without a trial, to be guilty of a crime. The state legislatures and Congress are forbidden to pass such acts by Article I of the Constitution. (Ch. 2)
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the US Constitution. The Bill of Rights guarantee personal liberties and limit the powers of the government.
Bipartisan
Refers to two political parties working together to reach a common policy goal.
Black Codes
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Blanket Primary
A primary in which voters may cast ballots in either party's primary (but not both) on an office-by-office basis
block grants
broad grants to states for prescribed activities (welfare, child care, edu, social services, preventive health care, health services), very flexible
blue laws
Laws that prohibit certain businesses from opening on Sunday or from selling certain items on that day. Blue laws often apply to bars and to alcohol sales. Originally enacted to allow observation of Sunday as a Sabbath, blue laws have come under attack as violating the separation of church and state. The courts, however, have upheld most blue laws, on the basis that their observance has become secular and promotes Sunday as a day of rest and relaxation.
Boycott
A concerted effort to get people to stop buying goods and services from a company or person in order to punish that company or to coerce its owner into changing policies. (Ch. 15)
branches of government
The division of government into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. In the case of the federal government, the three branches were established by the Constitution. The executive branch consists of the president, the cabinet, and the various departments and executive agencies. The legislative branch consists of the two houses of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives, and their staff. The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court and the other federal courts.
Brandeis Brief
A friend of the court opinion offered by Louis Brandeis, in the Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon (1908), which spoke about inherent differences between men and women in the workplace.
bread-and-butter issues
Those political issues specifically directed at the daily concerns of most working-class Americans, such as job security, tax rates, wages, and employee benefits.
brief
A document containing the legal written arguments in a case filed with a court by a party prior to a hearing or trial
broad constructionism
Belief that the Constitution should be interpreted loosely concerning the restrictions it places on federal power. Loose constructionists emphasize the importance of the elastic clause.
Brown v. Board of Education
the 1954 case in which the Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" (Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896) standard as it applied to education
Bubble standard
The total amount of air pollution that can come from a given factory. A company is free to decide which specific sources within that factory must be reduced and how to meet the bubble standard. (Ch. 21)
Buckley Vs. Valeo
campaign spending--legislaters can limit contributions but one can spend their own money as much as they want (donation caps)
Budget resolution
A proposal submitted by the House and Senate budget committees to their respective chambers recommending a total budget ceiling and a ceiling for each of several spending areas (such as health or defense) for the current fiscal year. These budget resolutions are intended to guide the work of each legislative committee as it decides what to spend in its area. (Ch. 16)
Bully pulpit
The ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals.
bundling
a tactic of political action committees whereby they collect contributions from like-minded individuals (limited to $2000 each) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle" thus increasing their influence
Bureau of the Public Debt?
An agency in the Treasury department that issues US Bonds.
Bureaucracy
A set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duty to enforce the law.
bureaucrat
a career government employee
Bureaucrats
The appointed officials who operate government agencies from day to day. (Ch. 1)
Burger Court
Warren Burger was appointed by Richard Nixon in 1969 as the 15th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The Court he presided over was more conservative than the Warren Court, handing over more power to the states through the Court's decisions.
busing
The movement of students from one neighborhood to a school in another neighborhood, usually by bus and usually to break down de facto segregation of public schools. ‡ A Supreme Court decision in 1971 ruling that busing was an appropriate means of achieving integrated schools (see integration) was received with widespread, sometimes violent, resistance, particularly among whites into whose neighborhoods and schools black children were to be bused. In 1991, the Court ruled that school districts could end busing if they had done everything “practicable†to eliminate the traces of past discrimination.
cabinet
A group of presidential advisers, composed of the heads of the fourteen government departments (the secretaries of the Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Education, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, Department of State, Department of Transportation, Department of the Treasury, Department of Veterans Affairs, and the attorney general (head of the Department of Justice)â€"all of whom are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate) and a few other select government officials. Theoretically, the cabinet is charged with debating major policy issues and recommending action by the executive branch; the actual influence of the cabinet, however, is limited by competition from other advisory staffs.
Cabinets of the executive branch.
State, Treasury, Defense, Attorney General, Interior, Agriculture, Commercie, Labor, Health and Human Services, HUD, Transportation, Energy, Education, Vetrans Affairs, Homeland Security
Campaign finance reform
Legislation aimed at placing limits on political candidates accepting money and gifts from individuals and special interest groups.
candidate appeal
how voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities
capital offense
A crime, such as murder or betrayal of one’s country, that is treated so seriously that death may be considered an appropriate punishment.
capital punishment
The infliction of the death penalty as punishment for certain crimes. (See capital offense.) ‡ In the United States, capital punishment has been an extremely controversial issue on legal, moral, and ethical grounds. In 1972, the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty was not, in principle, cruel and unusual punishment (and not, therefore, unconstitutional), but that its implementation through existing state laws was unconstitutional. In 1976, the Supreme Court again ruled that the death penalty was not unconstitutional, though a mandatory death penalty for any crime was. Thirty-nine states now practice the death penalty.
Capitol Hill
A hill in Washington, D.C., on which the United States Capitol building sits. (See photo, next page.) The House of Representatives and the Senate meet in the Capitol. (See on the Hill.)
Casework
process of solving constituents' problems dealing with the bureaucracy
Categorical grants
Federal grants for specific purposes defined by federal law: to build an airport, for example, or to make welfare payments to low-income mothers. Such grants usually require that the state or locality put up money to "match" some part of the federal grants, though the amount of matching funds can be quite small. See also Grants-in-aid; Block grants (Ch. 3)
categorical-formula grants
Congress appropriated funds for specific purposes, allocated by formula and are subject to detailed federal conditions, provide federal supervision to ensure that money is spent as planned, local government receiving funds must also invest some of its own funds in the desired endeavors
Caucus
Party regulars meeting in small groups asking questions, discussing qualifications regarding the candidate, and voting on whether to endorse a particular candidate. The Iowa caucus has taken on almost as much importance as the New Hampshire primary because of its timing.
Central Intelligence Agency
U.S. espionage and information-gathering agency. The CIA operates overseas, monitoring the activities of U.S. enemies and potential enemies.
centralists
people who favor national action over action at the state and local levels
Chief executive
Used to describe the President. Powers found in Article II of the Constitution.
chief of staff
head of the White House staff
Circular structure
A method of organizing a president's staff in which several presidential assistants report directly to the president. (Ch. 12)
City
A municipal corporation or municipality that has been chartered by a state to exercise certain defined powers and provide certain specific services. (Ch. 3)
Civic competence
A belief that one can affect government policies. (Ch. 4)
Civic duty
A belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs. (Ch. 4)
civil court
court in which lawsuits are heard.
Civil law
The body of rules defining relationships among private citizens. It consists of both statutes and the accumulated customary law embodied in judicial decisions (the "common law"). See also Criminal law (Ch. 14)
civil liberties
In general, the rights to freedom of thought, expression, and action, and the protection of these rights from government interference or restriction. Civil liberties are the hallmark of liberal, democratic “free†societies. In the United States, the Bill of Rights guarantees a variety of civil liberties, most notably freedom of assembly, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech, expressed in the First Amendment. (See civil rights.)
civil rights
those protections against discrimination by the government and individuals, intended to prevent discrimination based on race, religion, gender, ethnicity, physical handicap, or sexual orientation
civil rights act of 1964
federal law that made segregation illegal in most public places, increased penalties and sentences for those convicted of discrimination in employment, and withheld federal aid from schools that discriminated on the basis of race or gender.
Civil rights act of 1968?
The Civil Rights Act of 1968 was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. While the Civil Rights Act of 1866 prohibited discrimination in housing, there were no federal enforcement provisions. The 1968 expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status. It also provided protection for civil rights workers. Title VIII of the Act is also known as the Fair Housing Act (of 1968) .
Civil rights act of 1991?
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a United States statute that was passed in response to a series of United States Supreme Court decisions limiting the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination. The Act also represented the first effort since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to modify some of the basic procedural and substantive rights provided by federal law in employment discrimination cases: it provided for the right to trial by jury on discrimination claims and introduced the possibility of emotional distress damages, while limiting the amount that a jury could award.
Civil Service Laws
These acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition
civil service system
method of hiring federal employees based on merit rather than on political beliefs or allegiances. replaced the spoils system in the US.
Civil Society
Citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in open debate about public policy
class action suit
a lawsuit filed on behalf of a group of people, and whose result affects that group as a whole, interest groups such as the NAACP often use these to assert their influence over policy decisions
Class consciousness
An awareness of belonging to a particular socioeconomic class whose interests are different from those of others. Usually used in reference to workers who view their interests as opposite those of managers and business owners. (Ch. 4)
Class-action suit
A case brought into court by a person on behalf of not only himself or herself but all other persons in the country under similar circumstances. For example, in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court decided that not only Linda Brown but all others similarly situated had the right to attend a local public school of their choice without regard to race. (Ch. 14)
Clean Water Act
Passed in 1987, this law established safe drinking standards and creates penalties for water polluters.
Clear Air Act (1970)
Law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standards for private industry.
clear and present danger test
interpretation by justice Oliver Wendell Holmes regarding limits on free speech if it presents clear and present danger to the public or leads to illegal actions; for example, one cannot shout "Fire!" in a crowded theater.
Client politics
The politics of policy-making in which some small group receives the benefits of the policy and the public at large bears the costs. Only those who benefit have an incentive to organize and press their case. (Ch. 15, 17)
Clientele Agencies
Executive departments directed by law to foster and promote the interests of a specific segment or group in the US population (such as the Department of Education)
Clinton Vs. NY
Banned presidential use of line item veto
Closed rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate and forbids a particular bill from being amended on the legislative floor. See also Open rule; Restrictive rule (Ch. 11)
closed shop
A workplace where an employee must be a member of the union. This was outlawed by the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act.
cloture
a procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate (if three fifths of the total number of the Senate [60 of 100] vote in favor of cloture, no senator may speak on the measure under consideration for more than one hour)
Coalition
An alliance among different interest groups (factions) or parties to achieve some political goal. An example is the coalition sometimes formed between Republicans and conservative Democrats. (Ch. 2)
Coattail Effect
The tendency of lesser-known or weaker candidates lower on the ballot to profit in an election by the presence on the party's ticket of a more popular candidate
Coercive Acts
Closed Boston Harbor to all but essential trade (food and firewood) and declared it would remain closed until the damages incurred during the Boston Tea Party were paid for. Several measures tightened English control over the Massachusetts government and its courts, and another required civilians to house British soldiers.
COINTELPRO?
COINTELPRO is an acronym (Counter Intelligence Program) for a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. Although covert operations have been employed throughout FBI history, the formal COINTELPRO operations of 1956-1971 were broadly targeted against organizations that were (at the time) considered to have politically radical elements, ranging from those whose stated goal was the violent overthrow of the US government (such as the Weathermen) to non-violent civil rights groups such as Martin Luther King Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference to racist and segregationist groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. COINTELPRO began in 1956 and was designed to "increase factionalism, cause disruption and win defections" inside the Communist Party U.S.A.
Collective security
Agreement to form through treaties mutual defense arrangements, such as NATO, which guarantee that if one nation is attacked, other nations will come to its defense.
Command-and-control strategy
A strategy to improve air and water quality, involving the setting of detailed pollution standards and rules. (Ch. 21)
commander in chief
The role of the United States president as highest ranking officer in the armed forces. The Constitution provides this power, but, through the system of checks and balances, gives Congress the authority to declare war. During periods of war, presidents such as Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, George H. W. Bush, William Jefferson Clinton, and George W. Bush have taken active roles as commander in chief.
Commerce clause
Article I Section 8 Clause 3 of the Constitution giving Congress the authority to regulate interstate commerce and commerce with foreign nations.
Committee clearance
The ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law. Such approval is not legally binding on the agency, but few agency heads will ignore the expressed wishes of committees. (Ch. 13)
Common law
Based on the legal concept of stare decisis, or judicial precedent.
Communism
Economic System where workers own means of production and control distribution of resources
Compensatory action
An action designed to help members of disadvantaged groups, especially minorities and women, catch up, usually by giving them extra education, training, or services. (Ch. 19)
competitive federalism
term defined by Thomas R Dye, all units of gov competing with each other over ways to put together the goods and services of gov
Competitive service
The government offices to which people are appointed on the grounds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by having met certain selection criteria (such as training, educational attainments, or prior experience). (Ch. 13)
Concurrent power
Power shared by the state and federal government, such as the power to tax.
Concurrent resolution
An expression of congressional opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and Senate but not of the president. Used to settle housekeeping and procedural matters that affect both houses. See also Simple resolution; Joint resolution (Ch. 11)
Concurring opinion
A Supreme Court opinion by one or more justices who agree with the majority's conclusion but for different reasons. See also Opinion of the Court; Dissenting opinion (Ch. 14)
Conditions of aid
Federal rules attached to the grants that states receive. States must agree to abide by these rules in order to receive the grants. (Ch. 3)
confederation
consitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central gov but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals
Confederation or confederal system
A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers that they expressly delegate to a central government. The United States was a confederation from 1776 to 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. See also Federalism; Unitary system (Ch. 3)
conference committee
Congressional committee that includes representatives of both houses of Congress. Their purpose is to settle differences between the Houes and Senate versions of bills that have been passed by their respective legislatures.
confirmation hearings
Meetings held by the Senate to gather information about candidates for federal office nominated by the president of the United States. Under the Constitution, the president has the right to appoint whomever he wants to various government offices, including members of the cabinet and federal judges, but each appointment must be approved by the Senate as part of the separation of powers.
Congress
The legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Popularly elected, senators and representatives are responsible for advocating the interests of the constituents they represent. Numerous congressional committees are organized to study issues of public policy, recommend action, and, ultimately, pass laws. Congress plays an important role in the system of checks and balances; in fact, the two-house (bicameral) organization of Congress acts as an internal check, for each house must separately vote to pass a bill for it to become a law. In addition to lawmaking, Congress has a variety of functions, including appropriation of funds for executive and judicial activities; instituting taxes and regulating commerce; declaring war and raising and supporting a military; setting up federal courts and conducting impeachment proceedings; and approving presidential appointments.
Congressional Budget Office
Congressional agency of budget experts who assess the feasibility of the president's plan and who help create Congress' version of the federal budget.
Congressional campaign committee
A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members who are running for reelection or to would-be members running for an open seat or challenging a candidate from the opposition party. (Ch. 7)
congressional district
The geographically defined group of people on whose behalf a representative acts in the House of Representatives. Reapportioned every 10 years according to new census data. All of equal size.
Congressional Medal of Honor
The highest military decoration in the United States armed services, often called the Congressional Medal of Honor. It recognizes valor and bravery in action “above and beyond the call of duty.†There have been some 3,400 recipients of the medal, which was established by an act of Congress in 1862.
Congressional oversight
Power used by Congress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy.
Congressional Record
A published account of the votes, speeches, and debates of the United States Congress.
Congressional Review
The process by which Congress can nullify an executive branch regulation by a resolution jointly passed in both houses within sixty days of announcement of the regulation and accepted by the president.
Congressionalist
One who believes that Article II's provision that the president should ensure "faithful execution of the laws" should be read as an injunction against substituting presidential authority for legislative intent.
Connecticut Compromise
Offered at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, it was adopted by the delegates and created a bicameral legislature, where one house is represented by population, and the other house is represented by the states.
conscientious objector
A person who refuses to render military service on the grounds of moral principle or religious belief. A CO must demonstrate a sincere, active, and long-standing objection in order to receive an exemption from armed service. The United States and some European governments officially recognize CO status; approved COs are usually required to perform social service or noncombat military service in place of armed duty. (See also draft, draft dodger, and Selective Service System.)
Consent of the governed
A derivative of the doctrine of natural rights; a philosophy, later adopted by Jefferson when he drafted the Declaration of Independence, that puts the authority of the government in the peoples' hands.
conservatism
a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive markets, and personal opportunity
conservative
A political ideology that tends to favor defense spending and school prayer and to disapporve of social programs, abortion, affirmative action, and a large, active govt. Generally affiliated with the Republican party.
Conservative coalition
An alliance between Republicans and conservative Democrats. (Ch. 11)
Constituent
Person living in the district of an elected official.
Constitutional amendments
Additions and changes to the original Constitution. The first ten amendments make up the Bill of Rights; there are currently twenty-seven amendments.
Constitutional Convention
A meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced a totally new constitution still in use today. (Ch. 2) Also, As yet untried methody by which the Constitution may be amended. To call a constitutional convention, two-thirds of all state legislatures must petition the federal government.
Constitutional court
A federal court exercising the judicial powers found in Article III of the Constitution and whose judges are given constitutional protection: they may not be fired (they serve during "good behavior"), nor may their salaries be reduced while they are in office. The most important constitutional courts are the Supreme Court, the ninety-four district courts, and the courts of appeals (one in each of eleven regions plus one in the District of Columbia). See also District courts; Courts of appeals; Federal-question cases (Ch. 14)
constitutional democracy
gov that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections
constitutional government
Form of government in which government power is vested in the people and is defined and limited by law.
constitutionalism
set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights, that requires leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make laws. We then hold them politically and legally accountable for how they exercise their powers.
Consumer Product Safety Commission?
an independent agency of the U.S. federal government created in 1972 through the Consumer Safety Act to protect "against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with consumer products". The CSPC has the authority to regulate the sale and manufacture of most consumer products, with the exception of those regulated by other agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATFE).
containment, policy of
"A United States foreign policy doctrine adopted by the Harry S. Truman administration in 1947, operating on the principle that communist governments will eventually fall apart as long as they are prevented from expanding their influence.
contempt of Congress
The deliberate obstruction of the workings of the federal legislative branch. For example, a witness under subpoena who refuses to testify before Congress can be cited for contempt of Congress.
contempt of court
The deliberate obstruction of a court’s proceedings by refusing to obey a court order or by interfering with court procedures. Contempt of court can be punished by fine, imprisonment, or both.
Content Regulation
Governmental attempts to regulate the electronic media
Continuing resolution
Emergency spending legislation that prevents the shutdown of any department simply because its budget has not been enacted.
cooperative federalism
Preeminent form of US federalism. (Marble cake analogy) National and state governments share many powers.
Cost
Any burden, monetary or nonmonetary, that some people must bear, or think that they must bear, if a policy is adopted. See also Benefit (Ch. 15)
Cost overruns
Actual costs that are several times greater than estimated costs. These occur frequently among private contractors producing new weapons for the Pentagon. (Ch. 20)
Council on Environmental Quality?
The United States Council On Environmental Quality (CEQ) is a division of the White House that coordinates federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. Congress established the CEQ within the Executive Office of the President as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Additional responsibilities were provided by the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970.
County
The largest territorial unit between a city and a town. (Ch. 3)
court of appeals
Courts, also called appellate courts, that are designed as part of the system of due process. Cases may be presented to these courts if a party is dissatisfied with the original court’s decision. An appeal must demonstrate that a new decision is warranted, usually in light of new evidence or a persuasive argument that the Constitution was improperly interpreted. A case may be appealed to successively higher state or federal appellate courts until it reaches the United States Supreme Court. There are twelve federal courts of appeal, each covering a group of states called a “circuit.â€
Creative federalism
Developed during President Lyndon Johnson's administration, it was characterized by the Great Society programs, which placed a major responsibility on federally funded programs.
criminal court
Court in which criminal trials are heard
Criminal law
The body of rules defining offenses that, though they harm an individual (such as murder, rape, and robbery), are considered to be offenses against society as a whole and as a consequence warrant punishment by and in the name of society. See also Civil law (Ch. 14)
Critical Election
An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues
Critical or realigning periods
Periods during which a sharp, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties. The issues that separate the two parties change, and so the kinds of voters supporting each party change. (Ch. 7)
cross-cutting cleavages
divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different
Crossover voting
Participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated
cruel and unusual punishment
Punishment prohibited by the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution. Cruel and unusual punishment includes torture, deliberately degrading punishment, or punishment that is too severe for the crime committed. This concept helps guarantee due process even to convicted criminals. Many people have argued that capital punishment should be considered cruel and unusual punishment.
Cue (political)
A signal telling a congressional representative what values (e.g., liberal or conservative) are at stake in a vote--who is for, who against a proposal--and how that issue fits into his or her own set of political beliefs or party agenda. (Ch. 9)
Culture of poverty
The establishment of an income level by government that references the point at which an individual is considered to be living in poverty.
Currency Act of 1764
Forbade the colonies to issue paper money. The colonists saw the British government increasing its control over the colonies against the colonists' will.
dark horse
An unexpected winner. In politics, a dark horse is a candidate for office considered unlikely to receive his or her party’s nomination, but who might be nominated if party leaders cannot agree on a better candidate
de facto discrimination
Racial discrimination that results from practice (such as housing patterns or other social factors) rather than the law
de facto segregation
(di FAK-toh, day FAK-toh) Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens “by fact†rather than by legal requirement. For example, often the concentration of African-Americans in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly black, or segregated in fact (de facto), although not by law (de jure).
de jure discrimination
Racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy
dealignment
Voters act increasingly independent of a party affiliation. Split-ticket voting may be a consequence.
decentralists
people who favor state or local action rather than national action
Declaration of Independence
Blueprint for the American Revolution containing three parts. The first part - an introduction including ideas such as natural rights as related to life, liberty, and property, the consent of the governed, and the concept of limited government. The second part - a list of grievances against the King of England and the third part - a declaration of independence.
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (1848)
Drafted at the Seneca Falls Convention and taken from The History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 1, by E.C. Stanton, S. B. Anthony, and M. J. Gage, the document that outlines the case for the right to vote for women, as well as other rights denied to women at that time.
Deep background
Information gathered for news stories that must be completely unsourced
Deficit spending
The government's meeting budgetary expenses by borrowing more money than it can pay back.
delegate
an official who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views; one interpretation of the role of the legislator
Delegate model
The view that an elected representative should represent the opinions of his or her constituents. (Ch. 12)
delegated powers
Constitutional powers granted solely to the federal government.
democracy
gov by the people, either directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections
democratic consensus
widespread agreement on fundamental principles of democratic governance and the values that undergird them
Democratic Party
Political party that evolved from the original Democratic-Republican Party. It is one of the two major political parties.
Democratic-Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, they were characterized as the party of the "common man." They believed in a more limited role of the central government.
Demographics
Characteristics of a population, including age, sex, and race. Demographics are often used to determine changes in the make-up of a population.
department
usually the largest organization in government; also the highest rank in federal hierarchy
Department of Agriculture
A department of the federal executive branch that provides services for farmers, including agricultural research, soil conservation, and efforts to regulate and stabilize the farming economy.
Department of Commerce
A department of the federal executive branch whose responsibilities include management of the census and the United States Patent Office. Through a variety of bureaus and agencies, such as the Industry and Trade Administration and the Office of Minority Business Enterprise, the Department of Commerce works to promote American business interests at home and abroad.
Department of Defense
A department of the federal executive branch entrusted with formulating military policies and maintaining American military forces. Its top official is the civilian secretary of defense. It is headquartered in the Pentagon.
Department of Education
A department of the federal executive branch responsible for providing federal aid to educational institutions and financial aid to students, keeping national educational records, and conducting some educational research.
Department of Energy
A department of the federal executive branch responsible for developing policies for effective use of the nation’s energy resources. The Department of Energy is involved in energy conservation, regulating oil pipelines, and encouraging research on new sources of energy
Department of Health and Human Services
A department of the federal executive branch responsible for the Social Security Administration, the Public Health Service, and other programs designed to promote public welfare. It was originally called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, until the separate Department of Education was created in 1979.
Department of Housing and Urban Development
A department of the federal executive branch responsible for home finance, promoting civil rights in housing, urban renewal, and the development of new communities.
Department of Justice
A department of the federal executive branch, headed by the attorney general, which administers the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), prosecutes violations of federal law, and is responsible for enforcing all civil rights legislation.
Department of Labor
A department of the federal executive branch concerned with improving working conditions and employment opportunities for laborers. Its programs include job training (especially for the poor), appraising manpower resources and needs, and regulating occupational safety.
Department of State
A department of the federal executive branch primarily responsible for making and conducting foreign policy. It is commonly called the State Department and is headed by the secretary of state. Its activities include negotiating treaties, coordinating correspondence and information programs with foreign governments, and administering economic aid to developing nations.
Department of the Interior
A department of the federal executive branch responsible for the National Park Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and a variety of programs designed to preserve natural resources in the United States and its territories and possessions in the Pacific Ocean.
Department of the Treasury
A department of the federal executive branch; it includes the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The Department of the Treasury has general responsibility for setting federal fiscal policy by collecting taxes and customs duties, administering the public debt, keeping all government accounts, minting currency, and licensing ships engaged in international and interstate commerce. The Department of the Treasury administers the Secret Service.
Department of Transportation
A department of the federal executive branch responsible for the national highways and for railroad and airline safety. It also manages Amtrak, the national railroad system, and the Coast Guard.
Department of Veterans Affairs
The second-largest cabinet department, the VA coordinates the distribution of benefits for veterans of the American armed forces and their dependents. The benefits include compensation for disabilities, the management of veterans’ hospitals, and various insurance programs.
Departments
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of governmental operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in that particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Descriptive representation
A correspondence between the demographic characteristics of representatives and those of their constituents. (Ch. 11)
devolution revolution
the effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
Dillon's rule
A legal principle that holds that the terms of city charters are to be interpreted narrowly. Under this rule (named after a lawyer who wrote a book on the subject in 1911) a municipal corporation can exercise only those powers expressly given it or those powers necessarily implied by, or essential to the accomplishment of, these stated powers. (Ch. 3)
Direct Incitement
Holds that advocacy of illegal action is protected by 1st Amendment unless imminent lawless action is intended and likely to occur.
direct primary
An election in which voters choose candidates to run on a party’s ticket in a subsequent election for public office.
Direct tax
Money paid directly to the government in the form of income taxes.
discharge petition
petition that, if signed by a majority of the members of the House, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration
Discount rates
Interest levels established by the Federal Reserve that affect the ability of the consumer to borrow money. Raising and lowering rates is used as a tool to combat inflation.
Discretionary authority
The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws. (Ch. 13)
Discretionary Spending
Those appropriation items in the budget that are not mandatory. In the federal budget, discretionary spending consists of measures in the 13 appropriation bills that must be passed by Congress by October 1 in such categories as transportation, agriculture, and education.
Disengagement
A view that U.S. involvement in Vietnam had led to a military defeat and political disaster and that further similar involvements should be avoided. Also known as "new isolationism." See also Isolationism; Containment (Ch. 20)
Dissenting opinion
Judicial written opinion that is contrary to the ruling of the full court.
Distributive policy
Results in the government giving benefits directly to people, groups, farmers, and businesses. Typical policies include subsidies, research and development funds for corporations, and direct government aid for highway construction and education.
district attorney
An official responsible for representing the government in court cases and for prosecuting criminals.
District courts
The lowest federal courts where federal cases begin. They are the only federal courts where trials are held. There are a total of ninety-four district courts in the United States and its territories. See also Courts of appeals; Constitutional court; Federal-question cases (Ch. 14)
Diversity cases
Cases involving citizens of different states over which the federal courts have jurisdiction as described in the Constitution. See also Federal-question cases (Ch. 14)
Division of labor
Skilled workers each have a specialized function, resulting in increased productivity.
Division vote
A congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted. See also Voice vote; Teller vote; Roll-call vote (Ch. 11)
Does the bill of rights apply to the states?
Yes, thanks to the 14th ammendment and other court decisions ( in 1925 with Gitlow v. New York ).
Does the presiden't cabinet deal more with foreign or domestic issues?
Domestic.
dollar diplomacy
The use of diplomatic influence, economic pressure, and military power to protect a nation’s economic and business interests abroad. The term was first used to describe the exploitative nature of United States involvement in Latin America.
Domino theory
An influential theory first articulated by President Eisenhower holding that if an important nation were to fall into communist hands, other neighboring countries would follow suit. Eisenhower used the metaphor of a row of dominoes falling in sequence to illustrate his point. (Ch. 20)
donkey
A symbol of the Democratic party, introduced in a series of political cartoons by Thomas Nast during the congressional elections of 1874. (Compare elephant.)
Double-tracking
A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business. See also Filibuster; Cloture rule (Ch. 11)
Dred Scott v. Sanford?
In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that even free Africans could not sue in a federal court, since they were not citizens of the United States and that slaves brought into free territory remained slaves because they were a form of property.
Drug Enforcement Administration
An agency in the United States Department of Justice that enforces federal laws and regulations dealing with narcotics and other dangerous drugs. It cooperates with the FBI and with local law enforcement agencies.
dual federalism
Form of US federalism during nation's early history. Federal and state governments remain separate and independent (layer cake analogy)
Dual primary
Where presidential candidates are selected and a separate slate of delegates is also voted on. New Hampshire uses this type of primary.
Dual sovereignty
A variation of double jeopardy. A person accused of a crime can be tried once in a state court and once in a federal court.
Dualist Theory
The theory that there has always been an underlying binary party nature to US politics
due process
Established legal procedures for the arrest and trial of an accused criminal
due process of law
The principle that an individual cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards. The Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantee that any person accused of a crime must be informed of the charges, be provided with legal counsel, be given a speedy and public trial, enjoy equal protection of the laws, and not be subjected to cruel and unusual punishment, unreasonable searches and seizures, double jeopardy, or self-incrimination.
E pluribus unum
(EE PLOOR-uh-buhs YOOH-nuhm, OOH-nuhm) A motto of the United States; Latin for “Out of many, one.†It refers to the Union formed by the separate states. E pluribus unum was adopted as a national motto in 1776 and is now found on the Great Seal of the United States and on United States currency.
Earmarks
Pet projects added to appropriation bills by congressman, called "wasteful spending" and "pork barrel legislation" by critics.
Earned Income Tax Credit
A provision of a 1975 tax law that entitles working families with children to receive money from the government if their total income falls below a certain level. (Ch. 17)
Eastern Establishment
The elite universities and financial institutions of major cities in the northeastern United States. These institutions, by virtue of their long-standing economic and social dominance, are often believed to exert an influence out of proportion to their size. In American politics, the Eastern Establishment often takes a liberal Republican stand. (See also Ivy League, Madison Avenue, power elite, and Wall Street.)
Economic planning
An economic philosophy that assumes that the government should plan, in varying ways, some part of the country's economic activity. For instance, in times of high inflation, it suggests that the government regulate the maximum prices that can be charged and wages that can be paid, at least in the larger industries. Another form of planning, called industrial policy, would have the government planning or subsidizing investments in industries that need to recover or in new industries that could replace them. (Ch. 16)
elastic clause
The section of the Constitution that allows Congress to pass laws "necessary and proper" to the performance of its duties. Allows Congress to stretch its pwers beyond those that are specifically granted to it.
Electorate
Citizens eligible to vote
Electronic Media
The broadcast media, including television, radio, computerized information services, and the Internet
elephant
A symbol of the Republican party, introduced in a series of political cartoons by Thomas Nast during the congressional elections of 1874. (Compare donkey.)
Elite
An identifiable group of persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource--such as money or political power. (Ch. 1)
Engel Vs. Vitale
prohibited state sponsered reciting of prayers in school
English Bill of Rights
1689 document guaranteeing certain basic rights to English subjects. Those rights include the right to a speedy trial; protection against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment; and the right to petition the government. This document also prevented the king from interfering with elections or from imposing taxes without consent of the Parliament.
Enlightenment Era
Period stretching from the late 17th century through the end of the 18th century. Sometimes called the Age of Reason. Science flourished during the this. As it did, many philosophers placed great faith in the powers of reason and human capability. With this increased faith came the belief that individuals were entitled to greater control over their own governments. Associated with writers Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.
entitlement programs
social insurance programs that allocate federal funds to all people who meet the conditions of the program, they are a form of mandatory spending so it is incredibly difficult to cut funds during the budgetary process (Social Security largest and most expensive one)
Entrepreneurial politics
Policies benefiting society as a whole or some large part that impose a substantial cost on some small identifiable segment of society. See also Policy entrepreneurs (Ch. 15)
Enumerated powers
Delegated powers of Congress, including the power to collect taxes, pay debts, provide for the common defense and general welfare, regulate commerce among the states, coin money, and declare war.
Environmental impact statement
A report required by federal law that assesses the possible effect of a project on the environment if the project is subsidized in whole or part by federal funds. (Ch. 21)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Regulates air and water pollution, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, and toxic substances. It is the main environmental regulatory agency.
environmentalism
an ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
Title VII of the 1964 civil rights act was extended to cover federal, state and local public employers and educational institutions by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal Agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing
equal opportunity
The goal of giving all persons an equal chance to an education and employment, and to protect their civil rights, regardless of their race, religious beliefs, or gender. In the United States, various minority groups have been fighting for equal opportunity over the last 150 years. (See affirmative action, civil rights movement, equal protection of the laws, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, National Organization for Women, segregation, sexism, suffragist, and women’s movement.)
equal protection of the laws
A phrase in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution requiring that states guarantee the same rights, privileges, and protections to all citizens. This doctrine reinforces that of due process of law and prevents states from passing or enforcing laws that arbitrarily discriminate against anyone.
Equal Rights Amendment
A twice-proposed but never ratified amendment to the Constitution that would prohibit denial or abridgement of rights on the basis of sex. First proposed in 1923, the amendment was passed by Congress in 1972 but failed ratification by the requisite number of states. It was a major rallying point of the women’s movement.
Equal Time Rule
The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell campaign air time equally to all candidates if they choose to sell to any
Equality of opportunity
A view that it is wrong to use race or sex either to discriminate against or give preferential treatment to minorities or women. See also Reverse discrimination (Ch. 19)
Establishment clause
Component of the First Amendment to the Constitution that defines the right of the citizens to practice their religions without governmental interference. It also places a restriction on government creating a "wall of separation" between church and state. Section of the Constitution that prohibits the government from designating one faith as the official religion of the US.
ethnicity
a social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race
ethnocentrisim
belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group
ex post facto
(eks pohst FAK-toh) A descriptive term for an explanation or a law that is made up after an event and then applied to it: “The chairman’s description of his plan sounds like an ex post facto attempt to justify an impulsive action.†Ex post facto is Latin for “from after the deed.â€
exclusionary rule
Rule that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial. The Supreme Court has created several exceptions to the exclusionary rule, notably the objective of good faith rule and the inevitable discovery rule.
Executive agreement
Agreement made between the president and a leader of a foreign country that does not have to be ratified by the Senate.
executive branch
The branch of federal and state government that is broadly responsible for implementing, supporting, and enforcing the laws made by the legislative branch and interpreted by the judicial branch. At the state level, the executive includes governors and their staffs. At the federal level, the executive includes the president, the vice president, staffs of appointed advisers (including the cabinet), and a variety of departments and agencies, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Postal Service (see postmaster general). The executive branch also proposes a great deal of legislation to Congress and appoints federal judges, including justices of the Supreme Court. Although the executive branch guides the nation’s domestic and foreign policies, the system of checks and balances works to limit its power.
Executive Office of the President
the cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities; currently the office includes the Office fo Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and other units
Executive order
Order signed by the president that has the effect of law, even though it is not passed by Congress. An example of an executive order includes President Clinton's order legalizing the abortion bill, RU486. All executive orders must be published in the "Federal Register"
Executive Privilege
An assertion of presidential power that reasons that the president can withhold information requested by the courts in matters relating to his office
Export-Import Bank of the United States?
The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank, Exim Bank or Eximbank) is the official export credit agency of the United States Government. It is an independent agency of the Executive Branch of The United States Governemnt established by the Congress of the United States in 1945 that finances or insures foreign purchases of U.S. goods for customers unable or unwilling to accept credit risk. For instance, in 2004 it insured the purchase by Iraq of fogging machines for insect abatement. There are many other banks around the world called Eximbank, some analogous to the U.S. Ex-Im Bank, and some private commercial banks.
express powers
powers sepcifically granted to one of the branches of the national gov by the Constitution
Expressed power
Specific power of the president as listed in Article I of the Constitution.
extradition
Process by which governments return fugitives to the jurisdiction from which they have fled.
Faction
According to James Madison, a group of people who seek to influence public policy in ways contrary to the public good. (Ch. 2)
Fair Labor Standards Act?
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor". The law originally contained a large number of special industry exemptions, many of which were designed to protect traditional pay practices in small, rural businesses. The bulk of these exemptions have been repealed. Currently, the most important issues relate to the so-called "white collar" exemptions applicable to professional, administrative and executive employees.
Fairness Doctrine
Rule in effect from 1949-1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views on important public issues
fairness doctrine
Federal Communications Commission policy that required holders of raido and televiison licenses to ensure that different view points were presented about controversial issues or persons; largely repealed in 1987
Family Medical Leave Act (1993)
Act that gave unpaid emergency medical leave for employees with a guarantee that their job would not be taken away in the interim.
Fannie Mae?
Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, created in 1938 to establish a secondary market for mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Fannie Mae buys mortgages on the secondary market, pools them and sells them as mortgage-backed securities to investors on the open market. This secondary mortgage market helps to replenish the supply of lendable money for mortgages and ensures that money continues to be available for new home purchases.
farm bloc
A group of both Democratic and Republican members of Congress from the farming states of the Middle West that pressures the federal government to adopt policies favorable to farmers.
Favorable balance of trade
Refers to a country exporting more than they import. The United States has had an unfavorable balance of trade since World War II.
Favorite son
The presidential candidate backed by the home state at the party's nominating convention.
FCC
The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 as the successor to the Federal Radio Commission and is charged with regulating all non-Federal Government use of the radio spectrum (including radio and television broadcasting), and all interstate telecommunications (wire, satellite and cable) as well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States. It is an important actor in US telecommunication policy. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Feature stories
Media reports about public events knowable to any reporter who cares to inquire, but involving acts and statements not routinely covered by a group of reporters. Thus a reporter must take the initiative and select a particular event as newsworthy, decide to write about it, and persuade an editor to run it. (Ch. 10)
Federal Bureau of Investigation
"An agency of the United States federal government, long headed by J. Edgar Hoover, which investigates violations of federal (rather than state or local) laws, including kidnaping, smuggling narcotics, and espionage. ‡ Established in 1908 under the Department of Justice, the FBI earned its reputation in the 1920s and 1930s by apprehending notorious bank robbers and gangsters"
Federal Election Campaign Acts (FECA)
In 1971 it set up restrictions on the amount of advertising used by a candidate, created disclosure of contributions over $100, and limited the amount of personal contributions a candidate could make on his or her behalf. In 1974 it set up a Federal Election Commission and established a system of federal matching funds for presidential candidates.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections
federal government
A government in which the national government and the local governments share certain power. The US is this.
federal mandate
a requirement imposed by the federal gov as a condition for the receipt of federal funds
Federal regime
A political system in which local units of government have a specially protected existence and can make final decisions over some governmental activities. (Ch. 3)
Federal Register
official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
Federal Reserve Act?
A 1913 act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central bank of the United States of America. According to the United States Constitution, only the U.S. Congress has the power and responsibility to coin money and set its value. In the 1913 Federal Reserve Act however, Congress delegated this power to the Federal Reserve. All banks chartered under the National Banking Act of 1863 were made members of the Federal Reserve System, while others could join. A Board of Governors appointed by the President of the United States supervised the system.
federal reserve board
Executive agency that is largely responsible for the formulation and implementation of monetary policy.
Federal Reserve System.
The central bank of the United States; incorporates 12 Federal Reserve branch banks and all national banks and state-charted commercial banks and some trust companies. It was was created in 1913 by the Federal Reserve Act.
Federal Trade Commission?
The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices. The Federal Trade Commission Act was one of President Wilson's major acts against trusts. Trusts and trust-busting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era. Since its inception the FTC has enforced the provisions of the Clayton Act, a contemporaneous antitrust statute. Over time, the FTC has been delegated the enforcement of additional business regulation statutes.
Federalism
The overall division of power between the federal government and state governments; as defined in the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution. It specifically tells the states that they have reserved powers. Powers not delegated to the government by the Constitution are given to the respective states.
Federalist papers
A series of eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (all using the name "Publius") that were published in New York newspapers in 1787-1788 to convince New Yorkers to adopt the newly proposed Constitution. They are classics of American constitutional and political thought. (Ch. 2)
Federalist Party
Headed by Alexander Hamilton, this party, made up of the country's upper class, supported a strong national government and set a policy agenda that would solve the nation's economic problems.
Federalists
Supporters of a stronger central government who advocated ratification of the Constitution. After ratification they founded a political party supporting a strong executive and Alexander Hamilton's economic policies. See also Antifederalists (Ch. 2)
Federal-question cases
Cases concerning the Constitution, federal law, or treaties over which the federal courts have jurisdiction as described in the Constitution. See also Diversity cases (Ch. 14)
Fee shifting
A law or rule that allows the plaintiff (the party that initiates the lawsuit) to collect its legal costs from the defendant if the defendant loses. See also Plaintiff (Ch. 14)
fellow traveler
One who supports the aims or philosophies of a political group without joining it. A “fellow traveler†is usually one who sympathizes with communist doctrines but is not a member of the Communist party. The term was used disparagingly in the 1950s to describe people accused of being communists.
felony
(FEL-uh-nee) A grave crime, such as murder, rape, or burglary, that is punishable by death (see capital offense) or imprisonment in a state or federal facility.
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
Prohibited states from denying votings rights to African Americans. Southern states circumvented the Fifteenth Amendment through literacy tests and poll taxes.
Fifth Amendment
"One of the ten amendments to the United States Constitution that make up the Bill of Rights. The Fifth Amendment imposes restrictions on the government’s prosecution of persons accused of crimes. It prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy and mandates due process of law. ‡ To “take the Fifth†is to refuse to testify because the testimony could lead to self-incrimination"
Fighting words doctrine
Established in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942), the decision incorporated into state law the concept that the government can limit free speech if it can be proved that the result of speech will cause physical violence.
First Amendment
An amendment to the United States Constitution guaranteeing the rights of free expression and action that are fundamental to democratic government. These rights include freedom of assembly, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech. The government is empowered, however, to restrict these freedoms if expression threatens to be destructive. Argument over the extent of First Amendment freedoms has often reached the Supreme Court. (See clear and present danger, libel, and obscenity.) The First Amendment begins the Bill of Rights.
First Quota Act of 1921?
Also known as the Emergency Quota Act of May 19, 1921 it limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910, according to Census figures. This totalled about 357,802 immigrants. Of that number just over half was allocated for northern and western Europeans, and the remainder for eastern and southern Europeans, a 75% reduction from prior years. Professionals were allowed in despite their origins. The act was passed in a time of swelling isolationism following World War I.
Fiscal federalism
A concept of federalism where funding is appropriated by the federal government to the states with specific conditions attached. The legislation can be in the form of mandates.
fiscal year
Twelve month period starting on October 1. Government budgets go into effect at the beginning of the fiscal year. Congress and the president agree on a budget resolution in April to guide government spending for the coming fiscal year.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Decision that established the precedent that the Supreme Court could rule a state law unconstitutional.
Focus group
Technique used by pollsters to determine how a cross section of voters feels about a particular topic.
Food stamp program
Federally funded program that gives food coupons to low-income people based on income and family size.
Foreign Agricultural Service?
The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) has primary responsibility for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's overseas programs -- market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information. It also administers USDA's export credit guarantee and food aid programs and helps increase income and food availability in developing nations.
Foreign Relations Committee
A committee of the Senate charged with overseeing the conduct of foreign policy.
Foreign Service
The professional arm of the executive branch that supplies diplomats for the United States embassies and consulates around the world. Ambassadors, though officially members of the Foreign Service, are sometimes friends of the president of the United States appointed in gratitude for support given during elections.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
Prevented the states from denying "due process of law" and "equal protection under the law" to citizens. The amendment was aimed specifically at protecting the rights of newly freed slaves. In the 20th century, the Supreme Court used teh amendment to strike down state laws that violate the bill of rights.
franchise
In politics, the right to vote. The Constitution left the determination of the qualifications of voters to the states. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, states usually restricted the franchise to white men who owned specified amounts of property. Gradually, poll taxes were substituted for property requirements. Before the Civil War, the voting rights of blacks were severely restricted, but the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, declared ratified in 1870, prohibited states from abridging the right to vote on the basis of race. Nevertheless, southern states used a variety of legal ploys to restrict black voting until passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Women were not guaranteed the right to vote in federal elections until ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. In 1971 the Twenty-sixth Amendment lowered the voting age from twenty-one to eighteen. (See suffrage and suffragette.)
Franking
Privilege enjoyed by members of Congress entitling them to free postage for any mailings made as part of their official duties.
Franking privilege
The ability of members of Congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for postage. (Ch. 11)
Free Exercise Clause
Prohibits US government from interfering with a citizen's right to practice his or her religion
Free Market Economy
"Invisible Hand" regulates prices, wages, product mix, etc
freedom of assembly
The right to hold public meetings and form associations without interference by the government. Freedom of peaceful assembly is guaranteed by the First Amendment to the Constitution. ‡ Segregation has been described as a violation of freedom of assembly.
freedom of association
The right to form societies, clubs, and other groups of people, and to meet with people individually, without interference by the government.
Freedom of expression
The constitutional rights of Americans to "freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances" as outlined in the First Amendment to the Constitution. (Ch. 18)
freedom of information act
Act which declassified government documents for public use.
Freedom of Information Act (1974)
Act that incorporates sunshine laws; opened up the government's meetings of record to the public and media.
freedom of religion
The right to choose a religion (or no religion) without interference by the government. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the First Amendment to the Constitution. (See separation of church and state.)
freedom of speech
The right to speak without censorship or restraint by the government. Freedom of speech is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution. (See clear and present danger.)
freedom of the press
The right to circulate opinions in print without censorship by the government. Americans enjoy freedom of the press under the First Amendment to the Constitution.
Front runner
Designation given to the candidate who leads in the polls.
frustration and agony
emotions felt when typing up all of these freaking vocabulary words
full faith and credit clause
Section of the Constitution that requires states to honor one another's licenses, marriages, and other acts of state courts.
Funded mandates
Those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states with federal funds to support them.
gay rights
The movement for civil rights for homosexuals. It originated after a police raid on a gay bar in New York City in 1969, which triggered a riot and launched the grassroots reform movement seeking to end social and legal discrimination against gays. (See Stonewall Riot.)
gender gap
A phrase marking the trend in recent U.S. presidential elections, whereby more female than male voters support the Democratic party candidate and more male than female voters support the Republican party candidate.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Agreement wherein new trade barriers would be avoided by member nations, existing tariffs would be eliminated, and protective tariffs would be used only for emergency situations.
general election
Election held on the first Tuesday of November, during which voters elect officials.
general election campaign
That part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election
General-act charter
A charter that applies to a number of cities that fall within a certain classification, usually based on city population. Thus in some states all cities with populations over 100,000 are governed on the basis of one charter, while all cities with populations between 50,000 and 99,999 are governed by a different one. See also Special-act charter (Ch. 3)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Case established the principle that Congress has sole authority over interstate commerce.
gideon v. wainwright
Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that a defendant in a felony trial must be provided a lawyer free of charge if the defendant cannot afford one.
Ginnie Mae?
The Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) was created by the United States Federal Government through a 1968 partition of the Federal National Mortgage Association. The GNMA is a wholly owned corporation within the United States' Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Its main purpose is to provide financial assistance to low- to moderate-income homebuyers, by promoting mortgage credit. They also have the undesirable attribute of being callable every month, meaning that, unlike other bonds, all or part of a GNMA bond might suddenly "mature" next month, if all the homeowners decided to pay off or refinance their mortgages. This does not involve a risk of loss to the investor, but rather a premature payment of the principal, and now the investor has to go look for another investment for his money. This is called prepayment risk.
Gitlow Vs. New York
states can not deny freedom of speech - precident for federalizing bill of rights
Global interdependence
The degree of linkage among the community of nations.
Gold plating
The tendency of Pentagon officials to ask weapons contractors to meet excessively high requirements. (Ch. 20)
Gonzales Vs. Carhart
upheld partial birth abortion ban act o 2003
Good Neighbor policy
A United States foreign policy doctrine, adopted by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, designed to improve relations with Latin America. A reaction to the exploitative dollar diplomacy of the early 1900s, the Good Neighbor policy encouraged interaction between the United States and Latin America as equals. In the postâ€"World War II era, however, the United States has often reverted to dollar diplomacy and gunboat diplomacy to impose its will on the countries of Latin America.
Good-faith exception
Admission at a trial of evidence that is gathered in violation of the Constitution if the violation results from a technical or minor error. See also Exclusionary rule (Ch. 18)
Government
Those institutions that create public policy.
Government Accountability Office (GAO)?
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. The GAO was established by the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921. According to GAO's current mission statement, the agency exists to support the Congress in meeting its Constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance and ensure the accountability of the federal government for the American people. The GAO is headed by the Comptroller General of the United States, a unique non-partisan position in the U.S. Government. The Comptroller General is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate for a 15-year, non-renewable term. The President selects a nominee from a list of at least three individuals recommended by an 8 member commission of congressional leaders. The Comptroller General may not be removed by the President, but only by Congress through impeachment or joint resolution for specific reasons. GAO examines the use of public funds, evaluates federal programs and activities, and provides analyses, options, recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make effective oversight, policy, and funding decisions. In this context, GAO works to continuously improve the economy, efficiency, and effectiveness of the federal government through financial audits, program reviews and evaluations, analyses, legal opinions, investigations, and other services. The GAO's activities are designed to ensure the executive branch's accountability to the Congress under the Constitution and the government's accountability to the American people.
Government Corporations
Businesses established by Congress that perform functions that could be provided by private businesses. (like the US Postal Service)
Governmental party
the Office holders and candidates who run under a political party's banner
Gramm-Rudman-Holings Bill (1985)
set budget reduction targets to balance budget but failed to eliminate loopholes
Grand and Petit Jury?
A Grand Jury is established to determine if a crime has been committed. A petit jury determines whether a person is guilty of a crime that has been committed.
Grandfather clause
A clause added to registration laws allowing people who did not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867 (before African Americans were legally allowed to vote). This was to exempt poor and illiterate whites from registration requirements established to keep former slaves from voting. The Supreme Court declared the practice unconstitutional in 1915. (Ch. 6)
Grants-in-aid
Federal funds provided to states and localities. Grants-in-aid are typically provided for airports, highways, education, and major welfare services. See also Categorical grants; Block grants (Ch. 3)
Grassroots
Political participation at the local level.
Gratz Vs. Bollinger
Stuck down use of bonus points for race in undergrad admissions at university of Michigan
great compromise
Settlement reached at the Constitutional convention between large states and small states. Called for two legislative houses.
Great Society
President Lyndon B. Johnson's social/economic program, aimed at raising the standard of living for America's poorest residents. Among its programs are Medicare, Medicaid, Project Head Start, Job Corps, and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA).
Green Party
a minor party dedicated to the environment, social justice, nonviolence, and a foreign policy of nonintervention; Ralph Nader ran as the Green party's nominee in 2000
Gridlock
Describes peoples' perception that Congress and the president are in a state of disagreement that results in little legislation passing.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens' right to privacy
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Currently the key economic measure that analyzes an upward or downward economic trend of the monetary value of all the goods and services produced within the nation on a quarterly basis.
Grutter Vs. Bollinger
Allowed race as a general factor in law school admissions at university of michigan
guilt by association
The attribution of guilt to individuals because of the people or organizations with which they associate, rather than because of any crime that they have committed.
gunboat diplomacy
A policy toward a foreign country that depends on the use, or threat of the use, of arms. (See big stick diplomacy.)
habeas corpus
(HAY-bee-uhs KAWR-puhs) A legal term meaning that an accused person must be presented physically before the court with a statement demonstrating sufficient cause for arrest. Thus, no accuser may imprison someone indefinitely without bringing that person and the charges against him or her into a courtroom. In Latin, habeas corpus literally means “you shall have the body.â€
Hard money
Federally regulated campaign contributions made to political candidates and political parties. Under current law, hard money contributions cannot exceed $1000 per individual, per election cycle.
Hatch Act
Law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or compaigning for a particular candidate
hawks and doves
Popularly, “hawks†are those who advocate an aggressive foreign policy based on strong military power. “Doves†try to resolve international conflicts without the threat of force.
hearsay
Information heard by one person about another. Hearsay is generally inadmissible as evidence in a court of law because it is based on the reports of others rather than on the personal knowledge of a witness.
High-tech campaign
A major characteristic of the modern presidential campaign. The use of paid political ads, 30- and 60- second spots, paid infomercials incorporating charts and graphs, and sophisticated polling techniques have all been used in recent campaigns.
Hold
Tactic by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill is brought to the floor. This stops the bill from coming to the floor until the hold is removed
Home-rule charter
A charter that allows the city government to do anything that is not prohibited by the charter or by state law. (Ch. 3)
homicide
(HOM-uh-seyed) The killing of one person by another, whether intended (murder) or not (manslaughter). Not all homicide is unlawful; killing in self-defense, for example, is not a crime.
honeymoon
period at the beginning of a new president's term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and Congress, usually lasting about six months
Hoover Commission?
An effort spearheaded by former president Herbert Hoover. It made a report to president Truman in 1949. The proposals of the Hoover Commission resulted in an extensive reorganization of the executive branch of the federal government. Another one was conductedand published its findings in 1955 during Eisenhower's administration. Their recommendations, over 70 percent of which were implemented by executive and legislative action, resulted in the elimination and consolidation of some departments but also in the creation of such new bodies as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the General Services Administration. In emulation of the federal government, many states set up similar bodies, known as "little Hoover commissions."
horse race
a close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than one substantive differences between the candidates
House of Burgesses
First legislature in the colonies. Formed in Virginia in 1916.
house of representatives
Lower house of US Congress, in which representation is allocated to states in direct proportion to their population. Has sole power to initiate appropriations legislation.
house rules committee
Determines the rules for debate of each bill, including whether the bill may be amended. This is the most powerful committee in the House.
How is a president impeached?
There are two steps: First the House of Reps passes the articles of impeachment, which are the formal allegations, by a simple majority. Next, the Senate votes, by two-thirds majority to convict.
How is the vacancy of the office of the Vice President filled?
The president nominates a person, who then must be confirmed by a majoirty vote of both houses of Congress. This is embodied in the 25th Amendment.
How many trust funds make up Social Security?
The Social Security System Comprises Four Trust Funds: Old-Age and Survivors Insurace, Disability Insurance, Hospital Insurance, Supplemental Medical Insurance
How often does congress override a president's veto?
Less than 5% of the time.
Human rights
In foreign policy, the view that our government should act to enhance the rights of people living in other countries. (Ch. 20)
hung jury
A jury that is unable to reach a verdict of guilty or not guilty. The result is a mistrial, and legal proceedings must be reinitiated to bring the case to trial again. Trying the case a second time does not constitute double jeopardy.
Hyperpluralism
A group theory characterized by many interest groups vying for control resulting in a government that is tied up in a gridlock.
Ideological interest groups
Political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions with coherent sets of (usually) controversial principles. (Ch. 9)
Ideological party
A party that values principled stands on issues above all else, including winning. It claims to have a comprehensive view of American society and government radically different from that of the established parties. (Ch. 7)
ideology
a consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of gov
Immigration Act of 1991
Act that shifted the quota of immigrants to Europe and aimed to attract immigrants who were trained workers.
impeachment
process by which a president, judge, or other government official can be tried for high crimes and misdemeanors (does not remove from office)
Imperial Congress
Describes a Congress that succeeds in establishing itself as dominant in legislative and foreign policy.
Imperial presidency
Term developed by historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr.; refers to presidents who dominate the political and legislative agenda.
Implementation
The process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
Implied powers
Those powers in the Constitution that are not listed or delegated. An example of an implied power is the Elastic Clause, giving Congress the right to make laws that are "necessary and proper."
impoundment
presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds authorized and appropriated by Congress
In forma pauperis
A procedure whereby a poor person can file and be heard in court as a pauper, free of charge. (Ch. 14)
In the US, who needs to approve treaties, and with what percentage?
The senate, by a 2/3rds vote.
Incentive
A valued benefit obtained by joining a political organization. (Ch. 9)
Income strategy
A policy of giving poor people money to help lift them out of poverty. (Ch. 17)
Incorporation Doctrine
Holds that the Due Process Clause applies to State and Local gov'ts in addition to national
Incorporation of the Fourteenth Amendment
Doctrine that made the Bill of Rights apply to the states as a result of Supreme Court decisions. Even though the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in 1868, incorporation started to take place in the 1920s. It reached a peak during the Warren Court in the late 1950s and 1960s.
independent agency
a gov entity that is independent of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Independent Executive Agencies
Governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have a narrower area of responsibility (such as the CIA) and are not part of any Cabinet Department
independent expenditures
the Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates
Independent regulatory agencies
Agencies that are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in nature and operation. Example include the Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency.
independent regulatory commission
a gov agency or commission with regulatory power who independence is protected by Congress
indictment
A written statement of criminal charges brought against a defendant. Guarantee that defendants know the charges against them so they can plan a defense.
Indirect tax
Money paid to the government as a result of purchased goods.
inevitable discovery
Exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial if the court determines that the evidence would eventually have been found by legal means
Information superhighway
A linked conglomerate of computer-generated information also known as the internet.
inherent powers
the pwers of the national gov in the field of foreign afairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
initiative
process through which voters may propose new laws, one of several Progressive Era reforms that increased voters' power over government
injunction
A court order that either compels or restrains an act by an individual, organization, or government official. In laborâ€"management relations, injunctions have been used to prevent workers from going on strike.
Insider stories
Information not usually made public that becomes public because someone with inside knowledge tells a reporter. The reporter may have worked hard to learn these facts, in which case it is called "investigative reporting," or some official may have wanted a story to get out, in which case it is called a "leak." (Ch. 10)
Insurance program
A self-financing government program based on contributions that provide benefits to unemployed or retired persons. (Ch. 17)
integration
The free association of people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds (see ethnicity); a goal of the civil rights movement to overcome policies of segregation that have been practiced in the United States. Those favoring integration of schools by such forceful means as busing or affirmative action have frequently argued that integration of schools will lead to integration of society as a whole. (See separate but equal.)
Interagency councils
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
interest group
Political group organized around a particular political goal or philosophy. Attempt to influence public poicy through political action and donations to sympathetic candidates.
Interest group politics
The politics of policy-making in which one small group bears the costs of the policy and another small group receives the benefits. Each group has an incentive to organize and to press its interest. See also Majoritarian politics; Client politics (Ch. 15)
interested money
financial contributions by individuals or groups in hope of influencing the outcome of an election and subsequently influencing policy
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
A clearinghouse for member nations to discuss monetary issues and develop international plans and policies to deal with monetary issues. Regulating monetary exchange rates is its primary task.
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC; 1887 - 1995) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. The Commission's seven members were appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. This was the first independent agency or so-called "Fourth Branch" agency. The ICC's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers. The ICC was dissolved in 1995.
Interstate Commerce Commission
A federal agency that monitors the business operations of carriers transporting goods and people between states. Its jurisdiction includes railroads, ships, trucks, buses, oil pipelines, and their terminal facilities. The ICC was established in 1887 as the first federal agency.
interstate compact
agreement among two or more states, Constitution requires that most such agreements be approved by Congress
Invisible Primary
The first phase of the presidential nomination process, where candidates attempt to gain front-runner status and raise the most money.
iron triangle
Also called subgovernment. Formed by the close working relationship among various interest groups, congressional committees, and executive agencies that enforce federal regulations.
Is the bulk of the data assembled by the CIA public or covert?
Public.
Isolationism
The view that the United States should withdraw from world affairs, limit foreign aid, and avoid involvement in foreign wars. See also Containment (Ch. 20)
issue advocacy
unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against" although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates
Issue network
A network of people in Washington-based interest groups, on congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media who regularly discuss and advocate public policies--say, health care or auto safety. Such networks are split along political, ideological, and economic lines. (Ch. 13)
Issue-Oriented Politics
Politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties
Jim Crow laws
State and local laws passed in the post-Reconstruction Era South to enforce racial segregation and otherwise restrict the rights of African Americans.
John Locke
an important philosopher of the English Enlightenment. He believed that the rights to life, liberty, and ownership of property were given by God and could not be taken away by governments. His philosophy influenced the framers of the Constitution.
John Marshall
Third Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (he served 1800-1835). A federalist who worked to increase the powers of the federal government over the states. He established the pricipal of judicial review.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
A high-level military advisory board in the Department of Defense, composed of high-ranking representatives of the army, navy, air force, and marines. The Joint Chiefs are responsible for formulating military policy and recommending action regarding issues of national security and international relations.
joint committee
a committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate; such committees oversee
joint resolution
A measure approved by both houses of the United States Congress and signed by the president. Similar to an act of Congress, the joint resolution is used to approve or initiate foreign policy actions, to grant a single appropriations proposal, and to propose amendments to the Constitution.
judicial activism
A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues judges should use their power broadly to further justice, especially in the areas of equality and personal liberty
judicial branch
The court systems of local, state, and federal governments, responsible for interpreting the laws passed by the legislative branch and enforced by the executive branch. These courts try criminal cases (in which a law may have been violated) or civil cases (disputes between parties over rights or responsibilities). The courts attempt to resolve conflicts impartially in order to protect the individual rights guaranteed by the Constitution, within the bounds of justice, as defined by the entire body of U.S. law. Some courts try only original cases, whereas others act as courts of appeals. The ultimate court of appeals is the Supreme Court. On the federal level, the system of checks and balances empowers Congress to create federal courts, and all federal judges must be appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. The courts may exercise the powers of judicial review and injunction.
Judicial Implementation
Refers to how and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual public policies affecting more than the immediate parties to a lawsuit
judicial restraint
A view, associated with Felix Frankfurter among others, that judges should be reluctant to declare legislative enactments unconstitutional unless the conflict between the enactment and the Constitution is obvious. The doctrine is akin to, but not identical with, narrow construction, and it is the opposite of judicial activism.
judicial review
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and executive actions unconstitutional.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Established the basic 3-tiered structure of the federal courts system
Judiciary committee
Key Senate committee that is responsible for recommending presidential judicial appointments to the full Senate for approval.
Jurisdiction
Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in any particular case
jurisprudence
(joor-is-PROOHD-ns) The philosophy of law. Jurisprudence implies creating a body of law and methods for interpreting the law, studying the relationships between law and society, and predicting the effects of legal decisions. In the United States, lawmakers, attorneys, scholars, and courts all take an active role in guiding jurisprudence.
justice of the peace
A local officer of the judicial branch empowered to try minor cases, recommend cases for trial, and perform civil ceremonies, such as marriages and oath taking. Justices of the peace are usually elected locally and are paid fees for their services.
kangaroo court
A court that ignores principles of justice; a court characterized by incompetence and dishonesty.
Kelo Vs. City of New London
Local gov may force the sale of private properst to make way for private economic development when officials decide it would benefit the public
Keynote address
Key speech at the national nominating convention that outlines the themes of the campaign.
killer amendment
Amendment to a bill proposed by its opponents for the specific purpose of decreasing the bill's chance of passing.
Ku Klux Klan
Nativist hate group founded during the Reconstruction Era. The Klan terrorized African Americans throughout the South, especially those who attempted to assert their civil rights. The preaches hatred of Catholics and Jews.
Lame duck
An officeholder who is either defeated or is retiring from the office in which he is serving, but still in office until his successor is sworn in; perceived to have little power or influence.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major achievement of the government under the Articles of Confederation. It created an orderly procedure for the settlement of the Ohio Valley.
Landrum-Griffin Act?
The Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (or LMRDA), also known as the Landrum-Griffin Act, is a United States labor law statute that regulates labor unions' internal affairs and union officials' relationships with employers. Enacted in 1959 after revelations concerning corruption and undemocratic practices in the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, International Longshoremen's Association, United Mine Workers and other unions received wide public attention, the Act requires unions to hold secret elections for local union offices on a regular basis and provides for review by the United States Department of Labor of union members' claims of improper election activity.
larceny
(LAHR-suh-nee) Theft; taking another person’s property with the intent of permanently depriving the owner.
Lawrence Vs. Texas
Using right of Privacy struck down texas ban on sodomy
Layer cake federalism
Federalism characterized by a national government exercising its power independently from state governments.
legislative branch
(LEJ-i-slay-tiv) The branch of the federal and state government empowered to make the laws that are then enforced by the executive branch and interpreted by the judicial branch. The legislative branch consists of Congress and the fifty state legislatures. At both state and federal levels, legislatures are made up of popularly elected representatives, who propose laws that are sensitive to the needs and interests of their local constituents. After a law is proposed as a bill, it is sent to appropriate committees for several stages of discussion, research, and modification. It is then debated in both legislative housesâ€"except in Nebraska, which has a single-house legislatureâ€"and put to a vote. If the law is passed, it is still subject to further modification and final vote by both houses. Under the system of checks and balances, the president can refuse to sign the bill into law (through the veto power). The legislature can then vote to override the veto. Other checks and balances include legislative powers to impeach public officials (see impeachment), confirm appointments to the executive and judicial branches, and vote on appropriations.
Legislative Courts
Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes, such as the Court of Military Appeals
legislative oversight
one of Congress's most importat tasks, the investigation and evaluation of the performance of corresponding executive agencies and departments to check the power of the executive branch
Legislative Veto
A procedure by which one or both houses of Congress can disallow an act of the president by a simple majority vote; ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Legitimacy
Political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or constitution. (Ch. 1)
Lemon Vs. Kurtzman
allowed states to provide text books and busing services for students attending private schools
libel
A written, printed, or pictorial statement that unjustly defames someone publicly. Prosecution of libel as a punishable offense puts some measure of restriction on freedom of the press under the First Amendment.
Liberal
In general, a person who favors a more active federal government for regulating business, supporting social welfare, and protecting minority rights, but who prefers less regulation of private social conduct. See also Conservative (Ch. 5)
liberalism
a belief in the positive uses of government to bring about justice and equality of opportunity
Library of Congress
The largest library in the United States, located in Washington, D.C., and maintained largely by federal appropriations. Its original purpose was to provide research facilities for members of Congress; today it serves the public as well. Most copyrighted publications are catalogued by the Library of Congress, whose classification system is used by major libraries around the country.
limited government
principle of government that states that government powers must be confined to those allowed it by the nation's Constitution
Line officer?
A line officer (or otherwise termed "officer of the line") is a military officer who is trained to command a warship, ground combat unit, or combat aviation unit. Officers who are not line officers are those whose primary duties are in non-direct combat specialties (as opposed to those assigned to non-combat duties for a given tour or rotation) such as chaplains, lawyers, supply officers and medical officers (both nurses and doctors). The navy refers to them as Staff Officers. In the United States military, qualified line officers, regardless of rank, would in times of combat have authority over higher ranking non-line officers.
Linkage institutions
The means by which individuals can express preferences regarding the development of public policy.
Literacy test
A requirement that citizens pass a literacy test in order to register to vote. It was established by many states to prevent former slaves (most of whom were illiterate) from voting. Illiterate whites were allowed to vote by a "grandfather clause" added to the law saying that a person could vote, even though he did not meet the legal requirements, if he or his ancestors voted before 1867. (Ch. 6)
Litmus test
In chemistry a way of finding out whether a liquid is acid or alkaline. The term is used in politics to mean a test of ideological purity, a way of finding out whether a person is a dyed-in-the-wool liberal or conservative or what his or her views are on a controversial question. (Ch. 14)
Loaded language
Words that reflect a value judgment, used to persuade the listener without making an argument. For example, if someone likes a politician, he might call him "the esteemed Senator Smith"; if he doesn't like him, he might refer to him as "that right-wing or radical senator." (Ch. 10)
Lobby
An interest group organized to influence government decisions, especially legislation. To lobby is to attempt to influence such decisions. A lobbyist is a person attempting to influence government decisions on behalf of the group. (Ch. 9)
lobbying
engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact
lobbyist
a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
Logrolling
Mutual aid among politicians, whereby one legislator supports another's pet project in return for the latter's support of his. The expression dates from the days when American pioneers needed help from neighbors in moving logs off of land to be farmed. (Ch. 15)
Loose construction
A liberal interpretation of the Constitution.
Machine
A party organization that recruits its members with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
machine, political
An administration of elected public officials who use their influential positions to solidify and perpetuate the power of their political party, often through dubious means. Machine politicians make free use of the spoils system and patronage, rewarding loyal party supporters with appointed government jobs. Other machine methods include gerrymandering election districts; planting party representatives in neighborhoods; making deals with judges, lawyers, and other professionals; and “buying†votes by offering social services to potential voters. When machine politics was especially strong in the United States, during the latter half of the nineteenth century, politicians would go so far as to offer beer for votes and would embezzle large amounts of public money. Machines also dominated party caucuses and conventions, thereby affecting politics at all levels of government.
Magna Carta
1215 document that guaranteed British freemen the right to trial by jury and the right of the Great Council (which represented English nobility) to approve taxes proposed by the monarchy.
Majoritarian politics
The politics of policy-making in which almost everybody benefits from a policy and almost everybody pays for it. See also Interest group politics; Client politics (Ch. 15, 17)
Majority-minority districts
Congressional districts designed to make it easier for citizens of a racial or ethnic minority to elect representatives. (Ch. 11)
Malapportionment
Drawing the boundaries of political districts so that districts are very unequal in population. (Ch. 18)
Mandate
A command, indicated by an electorate's votes, for the elected officials to carry out their platforms
Mandates
Rules imposed by the federal government on the states as conditions for obtaining federal grants or requirements that the states pay the costs of certain nationally defined programs. (Ch. 3)
Mandatory spending
Those appropriation items in a budget that must be allocated. In the federal budget, the majority of spending items are mandatory and include Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, payment on the national debt, and certain components of defense spending.
manslaughter
(MAN-slaw-tuhr) The unlawful killing of a person, without malice or premeditation. Involuntary manslaughter is accidental, such as running into someone with a car. Voluntary manslaughter is committed in the “heat of passion,†as in a spontaneous fight in which one person is killed by a strong blow. Manslaughter is usually considered less serious than murder. Both murder and manslaughter are types of homicide.
Mapp Vs. Ohio
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence can not be used in court
Marble cake federalism
Also known as cooperative federalism, it developed during the New Deal and is characterized by the federal government's becoming more intrusive in what was traditionally states' powers.
Marbury v. Madison?
(1803) landmark case in United States law wherein the U.S. Supreme Court established judicial review as a legitimate power of the Court on constitutional grounds.
Marginal districts
Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, typically with less than 55 percent of the vote. (Ch. 11)
Market (television)
An area easily reached by a television signal. There are about two hundred such markets in the country. (Ch. 10)
Marshall Court
John Marshall's tenure as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, whose leadership resulted in the landmark decisions of Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden. These cases shifted power to the judiciary and federal government.
Marshall Plan
Developed by President Truman's Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, and implemented after World War II beginning in 1947, it gave massive aid to help rebuild Europe after the war.
Marxists
People who believe that those who control the economic system also control the political one. (Ch. 1)
Mass media
Consisting of television, radio, newspapers, and magazines, they reach a large segment of the population. It is also considered one of the linkage institutions.
massive retaliation
The doctrine that the best way to deter aggression is to threaten a potential aggressor with devastation by atomic bombs. (See hawks and doves.)
Matching funds
Limited federal funds given to presidential candidates that match private donations raised during the campaign.
Material incentives
Benefits that have monetary value, including money, gifts, services, or discounts received as a result of one's membership in an organization. (Ch. 9)
Mayflower Compact
In 1620, the travellers aboard teh Mayflower signed an agreement establishing a body politic and a basic legal system for the colony. This agreement created a legal authority and a legislative assembly. It also asserted that the government's pwer derives from the consent of the governed, a concept central to limited government.
McCarthyism
Charges that unfairly or dishonestly tarnish the motives, attack the patriotism, or violate the rights of individuals, especially of political opponents. Refers to the numerous unsubstantiated accusations of communism made against public and private individuals by Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s. (Ch. 18)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Case that established the principle that the federal government was supreme over the state.
McGovern-Frasier Commission
Commission that brought significant representation changes to the Democratic Party. It made future conventions more democratic by including more minority representation.
Means test
An income qualification that determines whether one is eligible for benefits under government programs reserved for lower-income groups. (Ch. 17)
Medal of Honor
The highest military decoration in the United States armed services, often called the Congressional Medal of Honor. It recognizes valor and bravery in action “above and beyond the call of duty.†There have been some 3,400 recipients of the medal, which was established by an act of Congress in 1862.
Media Campaign
That part of a political campaign waged in the broadcast and print media
Media Effects
The influence of news sources on public opinion
Medicaid
A shared program between the federal and local governments that covers hospital and nursing home costs of low-income people.
Medicare
(MED-i-kair) A federal program providing medical care for the elderly. Established by a health insurance bill in 1965, as part of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society, the Medicare program made a significant step for social welfare legislation and helped establish the growing population of the elderly as a pressure group. (See entitlements.)
Mercantile System
System that binds trade and it's administration to the National gov't
Merit System
The system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations.
Middle America
A phrase coined by Joseph Kraft in a 1968 newspaper column to refer to Americans who have moved out of poverty but are not yet affluent and who cherish traditional middle-class values. (Ch. 5)
Military-industrial complex
An alleged alliance among key military, governmental, and corporate decision-makers involved in weapons procurement and military support systems. The phrase was coined by Dwight D. Eisenhower, who warned Americans about its dangers. (Ch. 20)
Miller v. California Decision?
(1973) was an important United States Supreme Court case involving what constitutes unprotected obscenity for First Amendment purposes. The decision reiterated that obscenity was not protected by the First Amendment and established the Miller test for determining what constituted obscene material.
minor party
a small political party that rises and falls with a charismatic candidate or, if composed of ideologies on the right or left, usually persists over time; also called a third party
Miranda decision
(muh-RAN-duh) A decision by the United States Supreme Court concerning the rights of persons in police custody. In the case of Miranda versus Arizona, in 1966, the Court ruled that, before questioning by the police, suspects must be informed that they have the right to remain silent and the right to consult an attorney, and that anything they say may be used against them in court. The Miranda ruling protects a suspect’s Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. The Miranda warning, a written statement of these rights, is normally recited by a police officer before interrogating the suspect in police custody.
misdemeanor
(mis-di-MEE-nuhr) A minor crime, punishable by a fine or a light jail term. Common misdemeanors, such as traffic violations, are usually dealt with informally, without a trial. (Compare felony.)
Monarchy
Form of gov't in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens
Monetarism
An economic philosophy that assumes inflation occurs when there is too much money chasing too few goods. Monetarism suggests that the proper thing for government to do is to have a steady, predictable increase in the money supply at a rate about equal to the growth in the economy's productivity. (Ch. 16)
most-favored-nation
Status in an international trading arrangement whereby agreements between two nations on tariffs are then extended to other nations. Every nation involved in such an arrangement will have most-favored-nation status. This policy is used, particularly by the United States, to lower tariffs, extend cooperative trading agreements, and protect nations from discriminatory treatment. Most-favored-nation agreements can also be used to apply economic pressure on nations by deliberately excluding them from international trade.
Motor Voter Act of 1993
Signed into law by President Clinton, it enables people to register to vote at motor vehicle departments.
movement
a large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action, seek to change attitude or institutions not just policies
Muckraker
A journalist who searches through the activities of public officials and organizations seeking to expose conduct contrary to the public interest. The term was first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 to warn that antibusiness journalism, while valuable, could be excessively negative. (Ch. 10)
Mugwumps or progressives
The faction in the Republican party of the 1890s to the 1910s composed of reformers who opposed the use of patronage and party bosses and favored the leadership of experts. After 1910 they evolved into a nonpartisan "good government" movement that sought to open up the political system and curb the abuses of parties. See also Political machine (Ch. 7)
Multiple referral
A congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees that consider it simultaneously in whole or in part. For instance, the 1988 trade bill was considered by fourteen committees in the House and nine in the Senate simultaneously. (Ch. 11)
Municipal corporation or municipality
A legal term for a city. It is chartered by the state to exercise certain powers and provide certain services. See also Special-act charter; General-act charter (Ch. 3)
Name the order of presidential succession.
VP, speaker of house, pres. pro tempore of senate, Sec. State, Sec. Treasury, Sec. Defence, Attorney General.
Name-request job
A job to be filled by a person whom a government agency has identified by name. (Ch. 13)
narrow construction
A theory of interpretation of the Constitution that holds that the courts, particularly the Supreme Court, should be bound by the exact words of the Constitution, or by the original intent of the framers of the Constitution, or a combination of both. (Compare broad construction.)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
An agency of the United States government, charged with directing civilian programs in aeronautics research and space exploration. NASA maintains several facilities, most notably the Johnson Space Center in Houston (which selects space crew personnel and is responsible for ground direction of space flights), and the launching pads at Cape Canaveral in Florida.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
An organization that promotes the rights and welfare of black people. The NAACP is the oldest civil rights organization in the United States, founded in 1909. Among the NAACP’s achievements was a lawsuit that resulted in the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown versus Board of Education, in 1954, which declared the segregation of public schools unconstitutional. (See also W. E. B. DuBois and separate but equal.)
National chairman
A paid, full-time manager of a party's day-to-day work who is elected by the national committee. (Ch. 7)
National committee
A committee of delegates from each state and territory that runs party affairs between national conventions. (Ch. 7)
National convention
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that is held every four years. Its primary purpose is to nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates and to ratify a campaign platform. (Ch. 7)
National Economic Council?
The National Economic Council (NEC) is a United States government agency in the Executive Office of the President. Created by President Bill Clinton in 1993 by Executive Order, its functions are to coordinate policy-making for domestic and international economic issues, coordinate economic policy advice for the President, ensure that policy decisions and programs are consistent with the President's economic goals, and monitor implementation of the President's economic policy agenda. The Director of the NEC is also Assistant to the President for Economic Policy.
National Guard
The volunteer military forces of each state, which the governor of a state can summon in times of civil disorder or natural disaster. Through congressional and presidential order, the National Guard can be called into service in the regular United States army.
National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act)?
A 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. The Act does not, on the other hand, cover those workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers.
National Labor Relations Board
An agency of the United States government, charged with mediating disputes between labor and management, and responsible for preventing unfair labor practices, such as the harassment of labor unions by business corporations. The NLRB attempts to maintain a position of neutrality, favoring neither labor nor management.
National nominating conventions
The governing authority of the political party. They give direction to the national party chairperson, the spokesperson of the party, and the person who heads the national committee, the governing body of the party. They are also the forums where presidential candidates are given the official nod by their parties.
National Organization for Women
A major feminist organization, founded in the middle 1960s, when the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission failed to enforce a clause in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender. One of its founders was Betty Friedan. NOW has worked to promote occupational opportunities for women and has supported legislative proposals that would guarantee women equality with men.
national party convention
a antioanl meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every fours years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules
National Party Platform
A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention
National Rifle Association
An organization that acts as a powerful lobby against governmental restrictions on the private ownership of guns. NRA supporters argue that “guns don’t kill people; people kill people.†They often cite the Second Amendment to the Constitution, which states: “A well-regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.â€
National Security Council
Chaired by the president, it is the lead advisory board in the area of national and international security. The other members of the council include the vice president, secretaries of state and defense, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, and chair of the joint chiefs of staff.
national security council
Presidential advisory board established in 1947 to consult with the president on matters of defense and foreign policy.
national supremacy
constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national gov and those of a state or local gov, the actions of the fed gov prevail
national supremacy article
Article 6; "This Constiution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made...under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every States shall e bound thereby; any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding"
Nationalization of the Bill of Rights
A judicial doctrine of the Fourteenth Amendment that applied the Bill of Rights to the states in matters such as segregation.
natural law
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
Natural rights
Part of Locke's philosophy; rights that are God given such as life, liberty, and property.
naturalization
The process by which a foreign citizen becomes a citizen of a new country. Millions of immigrants to the United States have become American citizens. Requirements for naturalization in the United States include residency for several years, ability to communicate in English, demonstrated knowledge of American history and government, and a dedication to American values that includes no membership in subversive organizations, such as the Communist party.
Naturalization Act of 1870?
This Naturalization Act limited American citizenship to "white persons and persons of African descent," barring Asians - who were coming to california in large numbers - from U.S. citizenship.
Necessary and proper clause
The final paragraph of Article I, section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers. Sometimes called the "elastic clause" because of the flexibility that it provides to Congress. (Ch. 3)
Network
An association of broadcast stations (radio or television) that share programming through a financial arrangement
New Democrat
A term created by the Democratic Leadership Council in 1992, it denotes a less liberal, centrist Democrat.
New federalism
Political theory first espoused by Richard Nixon and carried out by Ronald Reagan. New federalism advocates the downsizing of the federal government and the devolution of power to the states.
New Jersey Plan
Offered at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, it urged the delegates to create a legislature based on equal representation by the states.
New world order
President Bush's vision for world peace centering around the United States taking the lead to ensure that aggression be dealt with by a mutual agreement of the United Nations, NATO, and other countries acting in concert.
news media
media that emphasizes the news
Nineteenth Amendment (1920)
Granted voting rights to women.
nolo contendere
(NOH-loh kuhn-TEN-duh-ree, kuhn-TEN-duh-ray) A plea that can be entered in a criminal or civil case, by which an accused person neither admits guilt nor proclaims innocence of a charge. Nolo contendere is Latin for “I do not wish to contend.â€
nomination
Endorsement to run for office by a political party.
Nomination Campaign
That part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election
Non-departmental cabinet level poistions.
Vice President, Chief of Staff, Deputy Chief of Staff, Administrator of the EPA, Director of the OMB, Director of the National Drug control Policy, USTR, Director fo the CIA, Ambassador to the UN, Under Secretary of Homeland Security, Emergency Preparedness, White House Counsel, National Security Advisor, Director of National Intelligence
nonpartisan election
a local or judicial election in which cnadidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots
Nonpartisan Primary
A primary used to select candidates regardless of party affiliation
Nonpreferential primary
Where voters choose delegates who are not bound to vote for the winning primary candidate.
Nonrenewable resources
Those natural resources such as oil, which based on consumption, are limited.
Nonviolent civil disobedience
A philosophy of opposing a law one considers unjust by peacefully violating it and allowing oneself to be punished as a result. (Ch. 19)
Norm
A standard of right or proper conduct that helps determine the range of acceptable social behavior and policy options. (Ch. 5)
Norris-La Guardia Act (1932)
Act that prohibited employers from punishing workers who joined unions and gave labor the right to form union.
North American Free Trade Agreement
An agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico to establish free trade. It took effect in 1994 and is designed to eliminate trade barriers between the three nations by 2009. Many American labor unions oppose NAFTA on the grounds that it takes away jobs from American workers as manufacturers relocate in Mexico to take advantage of cheaper labor. Others argue that free trade creates more jobs in the United States than it destroys.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A major achievement of the government under the AOC. It set specific regulations concerning the conditions under which a territory could apply for statehood. It also contained a bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment. It abolished slavlery in the Northwest territories (northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River, up to the Canadian border).
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968
Agreement that stopped and monitored the spread of nuclear weapons to countries who did not have the bomb.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
An agency of the United States government responsible for licensing and regulating nuclear power plants. Created in 1974, along with the Energy Research and Development Administration, it replaced the Atomic Energy Commission.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963
Agreement that banned atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.
Nullification
A theory first advanced by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson that the states had the right to "nullify" (that is, declare null and void) a federal law that, in the states' opinion, violated the Constitution. The theory was revived by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina in opposition to federal efforts to restrict slavery. The North's victory in the Civil War determined once and for all that the federal Union is indissoluble and that states cannot declare acts of Congress unconstitutional, a view later confirmed by the Supreme Court. (Ch. 3)
Oak Ridge
A city in Tennessee, where uranium for the atomic bomb was produced during World War II. Since that time, the government has maintained a variety of nuclear research facilities in Oak Ridge. (See also Manhattan Project.)
objective good faith
Exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial if the court determines that police believed they were acting within the limits of their search warrant.
office block ballot
ballot on which all candidates are listed under the office for which they are running, making split ticket voting easier
Office of Budget and Management
executive branch office responsible for drawing up the president's proposals for the federal budget
Office of Economic Opportunity
A federal agency, founded in the 1960s as part of the War on Poverty conducted by President Lyndon Johnson. The OEO distributed federal money to a variety of local programs designed to promote educational opportunities and job training among the poor and to provide legal services for the poor. The OEO was abolished in the middle 1970s, and its programs have been curtailed or scattered among other federal agencies, particularly the Department of Health and Human Services.
Office of National Drug Control Policy?
The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. Its stated goal is to establish policies, priorities, and objectives to eradicate illicit drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences in the United States.
Office-bloc ballot
A ballot listing all candidates for a given office under the name of that office; also called a "Massachusetts" ballot. See also Party-column ballot (Ch. 8)
Offsets
An environmental rule that a company in an area with polluted air can offset its own pollution by reducing pollution from another source in the area. For instance, an older company that can't afford to pay for new antipollution technologies may buy pollution credits from a newer company that has reduced its source of pollution below the levels required by law. (Ch. 21)
oligarchy
Form of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a small group of individuals.
omnibus bill?
An omnibus spending bill is a bill that sets the budget of many departments of the United States government at once. It is one possible outcome of the budget process in the U.S. Every year, Congress must pass bills that appropriate money for all discretionary government spending. Generally, one bill is passed for each sub-committee of the U.S. House Committee on Appropriations. Ordinarily, each bill is passed separately — one bill for Defense, one for Homeland Security, and so on. appropriations bills into one omnibus spending bill. Some of the reasons that Congress might not complete all the separate bills include partisan disagreement, disagreement amongst members of the same political party, and too much work on other bills. When Congress does not or cannot produce separate bills in a timely fashion (by the beginning of the fiscal year on October 1), it will roll many of the separate. Often times, omnibus spending bills are criticized for being full of pork (unnecessary/wasteful spending that pleases constituents). The bills regularly stretch to more than 1,000 pages long, and often have not even been read in full by the people voting for them. Nevertheless, they have grown more common in recent years. The most recent one is for fiscal year 2005.
On background
A term for when sources are not specifically named in a news story
on the Hill
A phrase referring to Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., where Congress meets: “They’re debating that nuclear waste issue on the Hill today.â€
One-Partyism
A political system in which one party dominates and wins virtually all contests
Open rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the legislative floor. See also Closed rule; Restrictive rule (Ch. 11)
open shop
a company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
open, closed, and restricted rules in the House?
Bills favorably reported by committee are placed on the House or Senate calendar, which, in spite of its name, is simply a listing without chronological order. Many bills die on the calendar because they are never considered on the floor. In the House, the Rules Committee acts as a "traffic cop." Its rules are instructions which determine if and when a bill will be considered on the floor, and how. A closed rule forbids amendments and speeds consideration. A restricted rule allows only certain amendments to be considered. An open rule, of course, permits unlimited amendments. The Senate has no Rules Committee but instead relies on a unanimous consent agreement negotiated between the majority and minority leaders to govern consideration of a bill. The Senate also differs in permitting filibusters, which allow senators to delay or even kill bills by unlimited debate, though unlimited debate may be prevented if 60 senators vote for cloture. Cloture was once rare but is becoming more common. The Senate also allows unlimited amendments, which encourages riders: amendments unrelated to the substance of a bill, slipping in "back-door" legislation.
Oral argument
Legal argument made by each attorney in proceedings before the court in an attempt to persuade the court to decide the issue in their client's favor.
Ordinance
A law passed and enforced by a city government. (Ch. 3)
Organizational Campaign
That part of a political campaign involved in fund-raising, literature distribution, and all other activities not directly involving the candidate.
Organizational Party
The workers and activists who staff the party's formal organization
original jurisdiction
term used to describe a court's power to initially try a case. Courts in which cases are first heard are those with originial jurisdiction in the case, appellate courts hear challenges to earlier court decisions
Orthodox
People who believe that moral rules are derived from the commands of God or the laws of nature; these commands and laws are relatively clear, unchanging, and independent of individual moral preferences. They are likely to believe that traditional morality is more important than individual liberty and should be enforced by government and communal norms. See also Progressive (Ch. 4)
OSHA created?
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was created by Congress under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon,on December 29, 1970. Its mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths by issuing and enforcing rules (called standards) for workplace safety and health. This same act also created the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a research agency whose purpose is to determine the major types of hazards in the workplace and ways of controlling them. OSHA's statutory authority extends to most nongovernmental workplaces where there are employees. State and local government workers are excluded from Federal coverage, however, states operating their own state workplace safety and health programs under plans approved by the U.S. Department of Labor cover most private sector workers and are also required to extend their coverage to public sector (state and local government) workers in the state.
our federalism
created by Ronald Reagan, Sandra Day O'Connor, Antonin Scalia, William Rehnquist. presumes power of the fed gov is limited in favor of the broad powers reserved to the states
override
The constitutional power of congress to supersede a president's veto by a two-thirds majority in both houses.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)?
The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is an agency of the U.S. government established in 1971 that helps U.S. businesses invest overseas and promotes economic development in new and emerging markets. OPIC operations cost nothing to American taxpayers because it charges market-based fees for its products and services. The agency has earned a profit in each year of operations — $175 million in 2002 — and built its reserves to more than $4 billion.
Oversight
Congressional review of the activities of an agency, department, or office
Palko Vs. Connecticut
Provided test for which parts of the bill of rights should be federalized
pardon
Cancellation of criminal punishment. Presidents and governors have the power to grant pardons to those awaiting trial and to those convicted of crimes.
Parliament
Legislative body of Great Britain. It is divided into 2 houses, although one house, the House of Lords, has little power. The other house is the democratically-elected House of Commons.
Partnership for peace
President Clinton announced in 1993 a policy that allowed for the gradual admission into NATO of new member nations from the former Warsaw Pact and gave the designation of associate status in NATO to Russia.
party caucus
a meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy, republicans call them conferences
party column ballot
type of ballot that encourages party line voting by listing all of a party's candidates in a column under the party name
party convention
a meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office
Party dealignment
A shift away from the major political parties to a more neutral, independent ideological view of party identification.
Party eras
A time period characterized by national dominance by one political party. There have been four major party eras in American history - the era of good feeling, the Republican era following the Civil War, the Democratic era following the election of Franklin Roosevelt, and the Republican era following the election of Richard Nixon.
Party Identification
A citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by his or her tendency to vote for the candidates of that party
Party in the electorate
The voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party
Party machine
The party organization that exists on the local level and uses patronage as the means to keep the party members in line. Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall are examples.
Party organization
Formal structure of a political party on the national, state, and local levels.
Party platforms
Voted on by the delegates attending the National Convention, they represent the ideological point of view of a political party.
Party polarization
A vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators. (Ch. 11)
Party Realignment
A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections
party registration
the act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote
Party regulars
Enrolled party members who are usually active in the organization of a political party and support party positions and nominated candidates.
Party-column ballot
A ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party; also called an "Indiana" ballot. See also Office-bloc ballot (Ch. 8)
patronage
(PAY-truh-nij, PAT-ruh-nij) The power of a government official or leader to make appointments and offer favors. Once in office, a politician can use patronage to build a loyal following. Though practiced at all levels of government, patronage is most often associated with the machine politics of big cities. (See spoils system.)
Peace Corps
An agency of the United States government that sends American volunteers to developing nations to help improve living standards and provide training. Created by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, under the auspices of the Department of State, the Peace Corps provides an opportunity to share American wealth, technology, and expertise. During the cold war it also served as a means for spreading American influence and values in the hope of preventing developing nations from allying themselves with the Soviet Union.
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act?
Established the United States Civil Service Commission, which placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called "spoils system." Drafted during the Chester A. Arthur administration, the Pendleton Act served as a response to President James Garfield's assassination by Charles J. Guiteau (a "disappointed office seeker"). The Act was passed into law on January 16, 1883.
Per curiam opinion
A brief, unsigned opinion issued by the Supreme Court to explain its ruling. See also Opinion of the Court (Ch. 14)
Perks
A short form of perquisites, meaning "fringe benefits of office." Among the perks of political office for high-ranking officials are limousines, expense accounts, free air travel, fancy offices, and staff assistants. (Ch. 12)
permissive federalism
sharing of power and authority between the national and state gov, the states portion is upon the permission of the national government
Personal Campaign
That part of a political campaign concerned with presenting the candidate's public image
Personal following
The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks. (Ch. 7)
Personal Liberty
Freedom to engage in a variety of practices, free from gov't discrimination
PFIAB?
Founded in 1956 by President Eisenhower, the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. According to its self-description, it "...provides advice to the President concerning the quality and adequacy of intelligence collection, of analysis and estimates, of counterintelligence, and of other intelligence activities. The PFIAB, through its Intelligence Oversight Board, also advises the President on the legality of foreign intelligence activities.
Photo ops
Photo opportunities.
Plaintiff
The party that initiates a lawsuit to obtain a remedy for an injury to his or her rights. (Ch. 14)
Plank
Any of the principles contained in a political party's platform.
Planned Parenthood Vs. Casey
states can regulate abortion but not with regulations that impose a burden to the woman; more leeway like the 24 hour waiting period and parent concent to minors
platform
statement of purpose and policy objectives drafted and approved by political parties at their national conventions, they rarely exert much influence on day-to-day politics
plea bargain
An agreement that permits a defendant to plead guilty to a lesser charge instead of pleading not guilty to a more serious one. Plea bargaining is usually undertaken by a prosecutor to obtain important information from a defendant or to avoid a long and costly trial
Pledge of Allegiance
Also called the “Pledge to the Flag.†The American patriotic vow, which is often recited at formal government ceremonies, including Independence Day ceremonies for new citizens: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The phrase under God, added in 1954 (more than sixty years after the pledge was originally published), has inspired heated debate over the separation of church and state.
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court ruling that "separate but equal" facilities for the different races were not unconstitutional. This ruling opened the door to 75 years of state-sanctioned segregation in the South.
Pluralism
A group theory that involves different groups all vying for control of the policy agenda. No single group emerges, forcing the groups to compromise.
Plurality
Winning number of votes received in a race containing more than two candidates but which is not more than half of the total votes cast.
Plurality system
An electoral system, used in almost all American elections, in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority of the votes. (Ch. 7)
pocket veto
If the president fails to approve a bill passed during the last 10 days of a Congressional session, the bill does not become a law.
Police power
The power of a state to promote health, safety, and morals. (Ch. 3)
Policy agenda
Agenda that results from the interaction of linkage institutions.
Policy entrepreneurs
Those in and out of government who find ways of pulling together a legislative majority on behalf of unorganized interests. See also Entrepreneurial politics (Ch. 15)
policy implementation
the process by which executive departments and agencies put legislation into practive, they are often allowed a degree of freedom to interpret legislation as they write guidelines to enact and enforce the law
political action committee
(PAC) Fundraising apparatus of interest groups; donations are regulated by federal law; contribute heavily to the reelection campaigns of representatives and senators sympathetic to the PAC's political agenda.
Political agenda
A set of issues thought by the public or those in power to merit action by the government. (Ch. 15)
Political consultant
Person who specializes in running a political campaign. James Carville and Karl Rove are examples of political consultants.
Political culture
A broadly shared way of thinking about political and economic life that reflects fundamental assumptions about how government should operate. It is distinct from political ideology, which refers to a more or less consistent set of views about the policies government ought to follow. Up to a point people sharing a common political culture can disagree about ideology. See also Political ideology (Ch. 4)
Political editorializing rule
A rule of the Federal Communica-tions Commission that if a broadcaster endorses a candidate, the opposing candidate has a right to reply. (Ch. 10)
Political efficacy
A citizen's belief that he or she can understand and influence political affairs. This sense is divided into two parts--internal efficacy (confidence in a citizen's own abilities to understand and take part in political affairs) and external efficacy (a belief that the system will respond to a citizen's demands). (Ch. 4)
Political Ideology
Set of coherent values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of gov't
Political machine
A party organization that recruits its members by dispensing patronage--tangible incentives such as money, political jobs, or an opportunity to get favors from government--and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity. (Ch. 7)
Political participation
The different ways an average citizen gets involved in the political process ranging from conventional means of influencing government to more radical unconventional tools that have influenced our elected officials.
Political party
A group of people joined together by common philosophies and common approaches with the aim of getting candidates elected in order to develop and implement public policy. It is characterized by an organization that is responsible to the electorate and has a role in government.
political predisposition
a characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior
Political question
An issue that the Supreme Court refuses to consider because it believes the Constitution has left it entirely to another branch to decide. Its view of such issues may change over time, however. For example, until the 1960s the Court refused to hear cases about the size of congressional districts, no matter how unequal their populations. In 1962, however, it decided that it was authorized to review the constitutional implications of this issue. (Ch. 14)
Political Socialization
The process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations; the learning process by which people acquire their political beliefs and values.
Political subculture
Fundamental assumptions about how the political process should operate that distinguish citizens by region, religion, or other characteristics. (Ch. 4)
Politico
Role played by elected representatives who act as trustees or delegates, depending on the issue
Politics
Who gets what, when, how, and why.
Poll tax
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote. It was adopted by many states to prevent former slaves (most of whom were poor) from voting. It is now unconstitutional. See also Grandfather clause; Literacy test (Ch. 6)
Pollution allowances (or banks)
A reduction in pollution below that required by law that can be used to cover a future plant expansion or sold to another company whose pollution emissions are above the legal requirements. (Ch. 21)
popular consent
the idea that a just gov must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
popular sovereignty
a belief that ultimate power resides in the people
populism
The belief that greater popular participation in government and business is necessary to protect individuals from exploitation by inflexible bureaucracy and financial conglomerates. “Power to the people†is a famous populist slogan.
Populists
People who hold liberal views on economic matters and conservative ones on social matters. They prefer a strong government that will reduce economic inequality, regulate businesses, and impose stricter social and criminal sanctions. The name and views have their origins in an agriculturally based social movement and party of the 1880s and 1890s that sought to curb the power of influential economic interests. (Ch. 5)
Position issue
An issue dividing the electorate on which rival parties adopt different policy positions to attract voters. See also Valence issue (Ch. 8)
postmaster general
The head of the United States Postal Service. Until 1970, the postmaster general was head of the federal Post Office Department and a member of the president’s cabinet. In 1970, the Postal Service was set up as an independent agency in place of the Post Office Department. The Postal Service is operated like a private corporation, although postal workers receive the benefits of federal employees.
Poverty line
References the point at which an individual is considered living in what has been called a "culture of poverty."
Power
The ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions. (Ch. 1)
power elite
A term used by the American sociologist (see sociology) C. Wright Mills to describe a relatively small, loosely knit group of people who tend to dominate American policymaking. This group includes bureaucratic, corporate, intellectual, military, and government elites who control the principal institutions in the United States and whose opinions and actions influence the decisions of the policymakers.
power of the purse
The influence that legislatures have over public policy because of their power to vote money for public purposes. The United States Congress must authorize the president’s budget requests to fund agencies and programs of the executive branch. (See appropriation.)
powers prohibited to states
making treaties with foreign govs, authorising private persons to prey on the shipping and commerce of other nations, coining money/issuing bills of credit/making anything but gold and silver coin legal tender in payment of debts, taxing imports or exports, taxing foreign ships, keeping troops or ships in time of peace (except the state militia, now called the National Guard), engaging in war (unless invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit delay)
Preamble
The introduction to the Constitution, outlining the goals of the document.
Precedent
prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for settling subsequent cases of a similar nature
preemption
the right of a federal law or regulation takes precedence over enforcement of a state or local law or regulation
president pro tempore
Individual chosen to preside over the Senate whenever the vice president is unavailable to do so. Chosen by the senate from among its members.
Presidential primary
Elections held in individual states to determine the preference of the voters and to allocate the number of delegates to the party's national convention.
presidential ticket
the joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot as required by the 12th amendment
Presidentialist
One who believes that Article II's grant of executive power is a broad grant of authority allowing a president wide discretionary powers
Press briefing
A relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press
Press secretary
Key White House staff position; the press secretary meets with the White House press corps.
pressure group
An organized group that tries to influence the government to adopt certain policies or measures. Also called an interest group. (See lobby.)
Price supports
The government's price guarantees for certain farm goods. The government subsidizes farmers to not grow certain crops and also buys food directly and stores it, rather than let the oversupply in the market bring the prices down.
Print Press
The traditional form of mass media, comprising newspapers, magazines, and journals
Prior restraint
The traditional view of the press's free speech rights as expressed by William Blackstone, the great English jurist. According to this view the press is guaranteed freedom from censorship--that is, rules telling it in advance what it can publish. After publication, however, the government can punish the press for material that is judged libelous or obscene. (Ch. 18)
privacy, right of
The doctrine, advanced by the Supreme Court most notably in Roe versus Wade, that the Constitution implicitly guarantees protection against activities that invade citizens’ privacy. The Constitution does not explicitly mention a right of privacy, but the First Amendment’s protection of free speech, the Fourth Amendment’s guarantee against “unreasonable searches and seizures,†the Ninth Amendment’s reference to “other†rights, the Court has ruled, imply a right of privacy. This doctrine exemplifies broad construction. (See Griswold versus Connecticut.)
Private bill
A legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters rather than with general legislative affairs. The main kinds include immigration and naturalization bills (Ch. referring to particular individuals) and personal-claim bills. See also Public bill (Ch. 11)
Privileges and immunities
The guarantees that the rights of a citizen in one state will be respected by other states. Also a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment that protects citizens from abuses by a state.
probate court
(PROH-bayt) A court that has jurisdiction over wills, estates, and guardianship of children.
Procedural due process
A series of steps that are established by the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Amendments that protect the rights of the accused at every step of the investigation.
Process regulation
Rules regulating manufacturing or industrial processes, usually aimed at improving consumer or worker safety and reducing environmental damage. (Ch. 15)
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited colonists from settling west of the rivers running through the Appalachians. It was issued in response to numerous Native American attacks on the settlers. This angered colonial settlers, who regarded it as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs. The ban was repealed in 1766.
Progressive
A person who believes that moral rules are derived in part from an individual's beliefs and the circumstances of modern life. Progressives are likely to favor government tolerance and protection of individual choice. (Ch. 4)
project grants
Congress appropriated funds of a certain sum, allocated to gov units based on applications
Prospective Judgment
A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
Prospective voting
Voting for a candidate because one favors his or her ideas for addressing issues after the election. (Ch. Prospective means "forward-looking.") See also Retrospective voting (Ch. 8)
Public bill
A legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern. A bill involving defense expenditures is a public bill; a bill pertaining to an individual's becoming a naturalized citizen is not. See also Private bill (Ch. 11)
Public policy
The final action(s) taken by government in promotional, regulatory, or distributive form.
Public-interest lobby
A political organization the stated goals of which will principally benefit nonmembers. (Ch. 9)
purpose of federal grants
supply state and local govs with revenue, to establish minimum national standards for things such as highways and clean air, to equalize resources among the states by taking money from people with high incomes through federal taxes and spending it through grants in states where the poor live, to attack national problems yet minimize the growth of federal agencies
Purposive incentive
The benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle from which one does not personally benefit. (Ch. 9)
Push Polls
"Polls" taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate
Pyramid structure
A method of organizing a president's staff in which most presidential assistants report through a hierarchy to the president's chief of staff. (Ch. 12)
Quasi-judicial
A characteristic of independent regulatory agencies that gives them judicial power to interpret regulations they create.
Quasi-legislative
A characteristic of independent regulatory agencies that gives them legislative powers to issue regulations.
quid pro quo
something given with the expectation of receiving something in return
quorum
(KWAWR-uhm) The minimum number of members of a committee or legislative body who must be present before business can officially or legally be conducted. In the United States Congress, for example, either house must have a majority (218 in the House of Representatives, 51 in the Senate) to have a quorum.
Quorum call
A calling of the roll in either house of Congress to see whether the number of representatives in attendance meets the minimum number required to conduct official business. (Ch. 11)
race
a grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance
racism
The belief that some races are inherently superior (physically, intellectually, or culturally) to others and therefore have a right to dominate them. In the United States, racism, particularly by whites against blacks, has created profound racial tension and conflict in virtually all aspects of American society. Until the breakthroughs achieved by the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, white domination over blacks was institutionalized and supported in all branches and levels of government, by denying blacks their civil rights and opportunities to participate in political, economic, and social communities.
Raiding
An organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party
Railway Labor Act?
It governs labor relations in the railway and airline industries in the United States. The Act, passed in 1926 and amended in 1936 to apply to the airline industry, seeks to substitute bargaining, arbitration and mediation for strikes as a means of resolving labor disputes.
rally point
a rise in public approval of the president that follows a crisis as Americans "rally round the flag" and the chief executive
Random Sampling
A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected
Ratings
An assessment of a representative's voting record on issues important to an interest group. Such ratings are designed to generate public support for or opposition to a legislator. (Ch. 9)
Reagan Democrats
Traditional Democratic middle-class voters turning to Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.
Reaganomics
The federal economic policies of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth. See also Supply-side theory; Monetarism (Ch. 16)
realigning election
an election during period of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties
realignment
occurs when a party undergoes a major shift in its electoral base and political agenda, the groups of people composing the party coalition may split up, resulting in a vastly different party. Realignments are rare and tend to be signaled by a critical election, last one occurred during the New Deal between the working-class and ethnic groups under the Democratic party
Reapportionment
The process in which a state legislature redraws congressional districts based on population increases or decreases.
Reapportionment Act of 1929
Act that provides for a permanent size of the House and for the number of seats, based on the census, each state should have.
Recess appointment
A presidential appointment made when the Congress is not in session that usually lacks enough votes in the Senate for confirmation. The position must be confirmed by the Senate by the end of the next session of Congress, or the position becomes vacant.
Red tape
Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done. (Ch. 13)
Reform party
a minor party founded by Ross Perot in 1995; focuses on national gov reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability; recently struggled with internal strife and criticism that i lacks an identity
Regional Primary
A proposed system in which the country would be divided into five or six geographic areas and all states in each region would hold their presidential primary on the same day
Registered voters
People who are registered to vote. While almost all adult American citizens are theoretically eligible to vote, only those who have completed a registration form by the required date may do so. (Ch. 6)
regulations
Rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law
regulatory agency
executive agency responsible for enforcing laws pertaining to a certain industry, the agency writes guidelines for the industry, such as safety codes, and enforces them through methods such as inspection
Regulatory policy
Policy that results in government control over individuals and businesses. Examples of regulatory policy include protection of the environment and consumer protection.
Rehnquist Court
First nominated by Richard Nixon in 1971, William Rehnquist was confirmed as the 16th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court after Warren Burger retired in 1986. He was known as a conservative jurist and his stewardship over the court reflected a court of judicial restraint and conservative tendencies.
reinforcing cleavages
divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogeneous or similar
Religious right
An evangelical conglomeration of ultraconservative political activists, many of whom support the Republican Party.
Religious tradition
The moral teachings of religious institutions on religious, social, and economic issues. (Ch. 5)
Remedy
A judicial order preventing or redressing a wrong or enforcing a right. (Ch. 14)
Renewable resources
Those natural resources such as solar energy that can be used over again.
representative democracy
Form of government under which citizens vote for delegates who in turn represent citizens' interest within the government. The US is this.
representatives
Popularly elected officials who serve in state legislatures and in the House of Representatives in Congress. Representing the local districts from which they are elected, representatives support the interests of their constituents by proposing bills and programs. Elected for two-year terms, representatives in Congress must be sensitive to their constituents’ concerns in order to be reelected.
Republic
A form of democracy in which power is vested in representatives selected by means of popular competitive elections. See also Representative democracy (Ch. 2)
Republican Party
Political party that evolved from the Whig Party, coming to power after Lincoln's election. It is one of the two current major political parties.
Reserved Power clause
Found in the Tenth Amendment, it gives states powers not delegated to the national government.
Restrictive rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the legislative floor. See also Closed rule; Open rule (Ch. 11)
Retrospective voting
Voting for or against the candidate or party in office because one likes or dislikes how things have gone in the recent past. (Ch. Retrospective means "backward-looking.") See also Prospective voting (Ch. 8)
Revenue sharing
A law providing for the distribution of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any government purpose. Distribution was intended to send more money to poorer, heavily taxed states and less to richer, lightly taxed ones. The program was ended in 1986. (Ch. 3)
Reverse discrimination
Discrimination against whites or males, usually with regard to employment or education. Those who oppose affirmative action programs often claim reverse discrimination as a result of such programs. Alan Bakke is an example.
revolving door
employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern
Rider
An amendment on a matter unrelated to a bill that is added to the bill so that it will "ride" to passage through the Congress. When a bill has lots of riders, it is called a Christmas tree bill. (Ch. 11)
Right to Privacy
the right to be let alone; a judicially created doctrine encompassing an individual's decision to use birth control or secure an abortion
Right-of-reply rule
A rule of the Federal Communications Commission that if a person is attacked on a broadcast (Ch. other than in a regular news program), that person has the right to reply over that same station. (Ch. 10)
right-wing
A descriptive term for an individual or a political faction that advocates very conservative policies. Right-wing groups generally support free enterprise. In the United States, the right wing generally argues for a strong national defense program and opposes federal involvement in promoting social welfare. (Compare left-wing.) Although both major political parties in the United States have right-wing factions, right-wing policies are usually associated with the Republican party.
Robert's Rules of Order
A handbook for running meetings effectively and efficiently, based on the procedures used in the British parliament. The principles included in the handbook are applicable to any decision-making organization, from Congress to community club committees. The handbook sets the guidelines for such issues as leading debates; recognizing speakers; defining the role of the chair and other officers; proposing, seconding, and voting on motions; and writing and amending constitutions and bylaws.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supreme Court case that decriminalized abortion.
Roll-call vote
A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names. When roll calls were handled orally, it was a time-consuming process in the House. Since 1973 an electronic voting system permits each House member to record his or her vote and learn the total automatically. See also Voice vote; Division vote; Teller vote (Ch. 11)
Routine stories
Media reports about public events that are regularly covered by reporters and that involve simple, easily described acts or statements. For example, the president takes a trip or Congress passes a bill. (Ch. 10)
rugged individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. The phrase is often associated with policies of the Republican party and was widely used by the Republican president Herbert Hoover. The phrase was later used in scorn by the Democratic presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman to refer to the disasters of Hoover’s administration, during which the stock market Crash of 1929 occurred and the Great Depression began.
Rule of Four
At least 4 justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard
Rules committee
One of the most important committees of the House of Representatives; its function is to create specific rules for every bill to be debated by the full House.
runoff primary
election held between top two vote-getters in a primary election, when neither received a legally required minimum percentage of the vote, many states require a runoff when no candidate receives at least 40 percent of the primary vote for his or her party
Safe districts
Districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 percent or more. (Ch. 11)
Safe seat
An elected official who, as an incumbent, has an easy reelection as a result of his incumbency or the political makeup of the district.
Safety net
A minimum government guarantee that ensures that individuals living in poverty will receive support in the form of social welfare program.
saving amendment
Amendment to a bill proposed in hopes of softening opposition by weakening objectionable elements of the bill.
Schenck v. United States (1919)?
It established the "clear and present danger" doctrine, in establishing that the right ro free speech can be curtailed in wartime. Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote the opinion.
search warrant
Document issued by the courts to allow the police to search private property. TO obatain this, the police must go before a judge and explain (1) where the want to search, and (2) what they are looking for. This also limits where the police may search and what they may take as evidence (Fourth Amendment).
SEC
The SEC was created by section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Second Bill of Rights
Franklin D Roosevelt's State of the Union Address in 1944: 1 the right to a useful and remunerative job in the industries, shops, farms, or mines of the nation; the right to earn enough to provide adequate food and clothing and recreation; the right of every farmer to raise and sell his products at a return that would give him and his family a decent living; the right of every business man, large and small, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies at home or abroad; the right of every family to a decent home; the right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health; the right to adequate protection form the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment; the right to a good edu
Second Treatise of Civil Government
Written by John Locke, it contains the blueprint principles found in the Declaration of Independence.
Second-order devolution
The flow of power and responsibility from states to local governments. (Ch. 3)
Secular Realignment
The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
segregation
The policy and practice of imposing the separation of races. In the United States, the policy of segregation denied African-Americans their civil rights and provided inferior facilities and services for them, most noticeably in public schools (see Brown versus Board of Education), housing, and industry. (See integration, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and separate but equal.)
Select committees
Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose. See also Standing committees; Joint committees (Ch. 11)
Selective attention
Paying attention only to those parts of a newspaper or broadcast story with which one agrees. Studies suggest that this is how people view political ads on television. (Ch. 10)
selective exposure
the process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases
Selective Incorporation
doctrine by which most - but not all - protections found in Bill of Rights are made applicable to states via 14th Amendment.
selective perception
the process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages
Selective Service System
The system used in the United States to draft young people into armed service. Though the United States at present has no draft, young men are required by law to register with the Selective Service when they reach the age of eighteen.
self-incrimination
Being forced or coerced to testify against oneself. Self-incrimination is prohibited by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Under this principle, a person may choose (given certain restrictions) to “take the Fifth,†refusing to testify in court or before a legislative or executive committee. Prohibiting self-incrimination not only helps guarantee due process of law, but also maintains one of the basic principles of American law by putting the burden of proof on the prosecution. (See also Miranda decision.)
senate
Upper house of Congress, in which each state has two representatives. Has power to approve cabinet, ambassadors, and judges, and treaties.
Senate confirmation
The process outlined in Article Two of the Constitution, giving the Senate the authority to approve appointments made by the president.
Senate, United States
The upper house of the United States Congress. Two senators are elected from each state, regardless of state population, guaranteeing each state equal representation. Senators are elected for six-year terms. The Senate tends to respond more directly than the House of Representatives to issues of national, rather than local, concern, though both houses of Congress participate in all aspects of legislation and policymaking. The Senate has the exclusive right to try cases of impeachment, approve presidential appointments, confirm treaties, and elect a vice president if no candidate receives a majority from the Electoral College. The vice president serves as presiding officer of the Senate.
Senatorial Courtesy
A process by which presidents, when selecting district court judges, defer to the senators in whose state the vacancy occurs
Senior Executive Service
established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career exeuctives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government
Seniority
A system guaranteeing that those who serve in office the longest get preferential treatment. In Congress, those representatives who serve the longest get seniority in their committee assignments.
seniority rule
a legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee
Separate-but-equal doctrine
The doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson (Ch. 1896), in which the Supreme Court ruled that a state could provide "separate but equal" facilities for African Americans. (Ch. 19)
Separation of church and state
Also known as the "establishment clause," it is part of the First Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting the federal government from creating a state-supported religion.
Sequential referral
A congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting, or may refer parts of a bill to separate committees. (Ch. 11)
Sequester
Automatic, across-the-board cuts in certain federal programs that are triggered by law when Congress and the president cannot agree on a spending plan. (Ch. 16)
Service strategy
A policy of providing poor people with education and job training to help lift them out of poverty. (Ch. 17)
Shared powers
Those powers that are concurrent, or overlapping, between the federal and state governments. Taxation is a shared power, for instance.
Shaw Vs. Reno
No Racial gerrymandering
Shays's Rebellion
A rebellion in 1787 led by Daniel Shays and other ex-Revolutionary War soldiers and officers to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. The revolt highlighted the weaknesses of the Confederation and bolstered support for a stronger national government. (Ch. 2)
shield law
Law guaranteeing news reporters the right to protect the anonymity of their sources. Many states have passed shield laws, but there is no federal shield law.
Silent majority
A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s. (Ch. 5)
Simple resolution
An expression of opinion either in the House of Representatives or the Senate to settle housekeeping or procedural matters in either body. Such expressions are not signed by the president and do not have the force of law. See also Concurrent resolution; Joint resolution (Ch. 11)
Simpson-Marzzoli Act (1987)
Act that resulted in more than 2 million illegal aliens who were living in this country since 1982 being allowed to apply for legal status.
Sixteenth Amendment (1913)
Authorized Congress to impose and collect federal income taxes.
Slander
Speech that intentionally gives false information or defames the character of an individual.
slush fund
A collection of money by a political official or administration that is used to make payments for various services. Though slush funds may be used for legitimate purposes, such as paying state employees, the term is generally used to describe money that is not properly accounted for and is being used for personal expenses and political payoffs. Money raised for political campaigns has come under increasing public scrutiny to ensure that it is not misused.
Small Business Administration (SBA)?
The Small Business Administration, or SBA, is a United States Government agency that provides support to small businesses. The SBA was established on July 30, 1953 by the United States Congress with the passage of the Small Business Act.
Smithsonian Institution
(smith-SOH-nee-uhn) A group of over a dozen museums and research and publication facilities, such as the National Air and Space Museum, the Museum of Natural History, the Museum of History and Technology, the National Zoo, and the National Gallery of Art. Many of the Smithsonian’s buildings are on the Washington Mall. The institution is named after James Smithson, an Englishman whose bequest enabled its founding in the nineteenth century.
smoke-filled room
A popular expression used to describe a place where the political wheeling and dealing of machine bosses (see machine politics) is conducted. The image originated during the Republican presidential nominating convention of 1920, in which Warren G. Harding emerged as a dark horse candidate.
social capital
democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations
Social Contract Theory
People are Free and Equal by God-Given right, so people must give their consent to be governed
Social movement
A widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order. The civil rights movement of the 1960s was such an event, as are broadly based religious revivals. A social movement may have liberal or conservative goals. (Ch. 9)
Social Security Administration
The American system for distributing old age and disability pensions from the federal government. Initiated through the Social Security Act of 1935, Social Security pensions are financed by contributions from workers and employers. Benefits are also available to the survivors of workers covered under Social Security.
Social status
A measure of one's social standing obtained by combining factors such as education, income, and occupation. (Ch. 5)
Social welfare
Entitlement programs such as Social Security and programs such as Aid to Dependent Children paid for by the federal government.
socioeconomic status
a division of population based on occupation, income, education
soft money
Political donations made to parties for the purpose of general party maintenance and support. This type of contribution is not limited by federal law. It can be used for get-out-the-vote campaigns, issue advocacy, and advertisements that promote the party (but not individual candidates).
Solicitor General
4th-ranking member of the Dept. of Justice; responsible for handling all appeals on behalf of the US gov't to the Supreme Court
Solid South
Dominance by the Democratic Party in the South following the Civil War. The Republicans made strong inroads when Ronald Reagan was elected President in 1980 and after the Republicans gained control of the Congress in 1994.
Solidary incentives
The social rewards that lead people to join local or state political organizations. People who find politics fun and want to meet others who share their interests are said to respond to solidary incentives. (Ch. 7, 9)
Sophomore surge
An increase in the votes that congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection. (Ch. 18)
Sound bite
A brief statement no longer than a few seconds used on a radio or television news broadcast. (Ch. 10)
Sovereign immunity
A doctrine that a citizen cannot sue the government without its consent. By statute Congress has given its consent for the government to be sued in many cases involving a dispute over a contract or damage done as a result of negligence. (Ch. 14)
Speaker of the House
presiding officer in the House of Representatives, formally elected by the House but actually selected by the majority party
special or select committee
a congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation
Special-act charter
A charter that denies the powers of a certain named city and lists what the city can and cannot do. See also General-act charter (Ch. 3)
Special-district government or authority
A local or regional government with responsibility for some single function such as administering schools, handling sewage, or managing airports. (Ch. 3)
Spin doctor
Name given to political consultants who try to shape the story or actions of their clients to the media in a positive manner.
Split ticket
Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election. For example, voting for a Republican for senator and a Democrat for president. See also Straight ticket (Ch. 7)
split ticket voting
Choosing candidates from different parties for offices listed on the same ballot.
Sponsored party
A local or state political party that is largely staffed and funded by another organization with established networks in the community. One example is the Democratic party in and around Detroit, which has been developed, led, and to a degree financed by the political-action arm of the United Auto Workers. (Ch. 7)
Standing
A legal concept establishing who is entitled to bring a lawsuit to court. For example, an individual must ordinarily show personal harm in order to acquire standing and be heard in court. (Ch. 14)
Standing committees
Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area. Examples are the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Judiciary Committee. See also Select committees; Joint committees (Ch. 11)
Stare decisis
A Latin term meaning "let the decision stand." The practice of basing judicial decisions on precedents established in similar cases decided in the past. (Ch. 14)
states' rights
Rights guaranteed to the states under the principle of federalism. Under the Constitution, states have considerable autonomy to pass, enforce, and interpret their own laws and to pursue their own public policy programs. Proponents of states’ rights argue that the states should be governed with a minimum of interference from the federal government. The relationship between federal and state responsibilities has often been controversial. Until the middle of the twentieth century, for example, the Supreme Court left the interpretation of many civil rights guarantees to the states, resulting in hostile and widespread discrimination against minorities.
statism
the idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals residing in that nation
statute of limitations
Any law that places a time restriction during which a lawsuit must be brought to court or a crime must be prosecuted.
Stewardship Theory
Theory that holds that Article II confers on the president the power and the duty to take whatever actions are deemed necessary in the national interest, unless prohibited by the Constitution or law
Straight ticket
Voting for candidates who are all of the same party. For example, voting for Republican candidates for senator, representative, and president. See also Split ticket (Ch. 7)
Stratified Sampling
A variation of random sampling; census data are used to divide a country into four sampling regions. Sets of counties and standard metropolitan statistical areas are then randomly selected in proportion to the total national population
straw poll
Originally, a small, informal opinion survey. Today, a straw poll is generally a large-scale, scientifically determined public opinion survey based on a random sample of the population. Straw polls are commonly used to test public opinion of candidates running for office.
Straw vote
Nonbinding vote used to determine the views of a small cross section of voters.
strict constructionism
Belief that the Constitution should be read in such a way as to limit as much as possible the powers of the federal government. Strict constructionists emphasize the importance of the Tenth Amendment, which reserves to all states and powers not explicitly granted the federal government.
Strict scrutiny
The standard by which the Supreme Court judges classifications based on race. To be accepted such a classification must be closely related to a "compelling" public purpose. (Ch. 19)
subpoena
(suh-PEE-nuh) An order of a court, a legislature, or a grand jury compelling a witness to be present at a trial or hearing, under penalty of fine or imprisonment. Subpoena is Latin for “under penalty.â€
Substantive Due Process
Judicial interpretation of the Due Process Clause that protects citizens from arbitrary or unjust laws
Substantive representation
The correspondence between representatives' opinions and those of their constituents. See also Descriptive representation (Ch. 11)
Suffrage
The right to vote guaranteed to African-Americans in the Fourteenth Amendment and women in the Nineteenth Amendment.
Sunshine Law
Requires all government meetings and records to be open to the public
Super Tuesday
The Tuesday on which a number of primary votes take place.
Supply-side theory
An economic philosophy that holds that sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government. (Ch. 16)
supremacy clause
Section of the Constitution that requires conflicts between federal law and state law to be resolved in favor of federal law. State constitutions and laws that violate the US Constitution, federal laws, or international treaties can be invalidated through this.
Supreme Court
A federal court; the highest body in the judicial branch. The Supreme Court is composed of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. (See photo, next page.) They serve on the Court as long as they choose, subject only to impeachment. Each state also has a supreme court; these courts are all courts of appeals, primarily hearing cases that have already been tried. The federal Supreme Court (the Supreme Court) has the final word on interpretation of all laws and of the Constitution itself. Supreme Court decisions have a significant impact on public policy and are often extremely controversial. In interpreting the Constitution, the justices of the Supreme Court occasionally have deduced legal doctrines that are not clearly stated (or stated at all) in the Constitution. For example, in the famous case of McCulloch versus Maryland (1819), Chief Justice John Marshall advanced the opinion, accepted by the Court, that the Constitution implicitly gives the federal government the power to establish a national bank, even though such a power is not explicitly granted by the Constitution. Similarly, in Roe versus Wade (1973), the Court ruled that state laws restricting abortion violate the right of privacy. The McCulloch and Roe decisions illustrate the principle of broad construction (interpretation) of the Constitution. The opposite is narrow construction. Those who favor broad construction, or judicial activism, believe that the spirit of the times, the values of the justices, and the needs of the nation may legitimately influence the way justices decide cases. In contrast, narrow constructionists insist that the Court should be bound by the exact words of the Constitution or by the intentions of the framers of the Constitution or by some combination of both. This view is sometimes called judicial restraint.
Surface Transportation Board?
The STB is an economic regulatory agency that Congress created to resolve railroad rate and service disputes and reviewing proposed railroad mergers. The STB is decisionally independent, although it is administratively affiliated with the U.S. Department of Transportation.
Susan B. Anthony
Political activist who spent her life campaigning for women's right to vote.
Suspect classifications
Classifications of people on the basis of their race and ethnicity. The courts have ruled that laws classifying people on these grounds will be subject to "strict scrutiny." (Ch. 19)
sweetener amendment
Amendment to a bill proposed in hopes of attracting the support of the bill's opponents. This includes appropriations earmarked for the district of a bill's opponent, for example.
Symbolic speech
Form of free speech interpreted by the Supreme Court as a guarantee under the First Amendment to the Constitution, such as wearing a black armband to protest a governmental action or burning an American flag in protest for political reasons.
Taft-Hartley Act?
The Taft-Hartley Act, passed in 1947 and still largely in effect, severely restricts the activities and power of labor unions in the United States. The Act, officially known as the Labor-Management Relations Act, was sponsored by Senator Robert Taft and Representative Fred Hartley. U.S. President Harry S. Truman described the act as a "slave-labor bill" and vetoed it. The United States Senate followed the United States House of Representatives in overriding Truman's veto on June 23, 1947, establishing the act as a law. The Taft-Hartley Act amended the Wagner Act, officially known as the National Labor Relations Act, which Congress had passed in 1935.
Taftian Theory
A Theory that holds that the president is limited by the specific grants of executive power found in the Constitution
take care clause
Article 2, Section 3; the presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws
Talking heads
Politicians who use sound bites or other means to present a superficial look at a policy position rather than an in-depth approach in explaining their views.
Teller vote
A congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and then the "nays." Since 1971 the identities of members in a teller vote can be "recorded." See also Voice vote; Division vote; Roll-call vote (Ch. 11)
Texas v. Johnson Decision?
(1989), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated prohibitions on desecrating the American flag in force in 48 of the 50 states. Justice William Brennan wrote for a five-justice majority in holding that the defendant's act of flag burning was protected speech under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Federalist
series of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788
The Patriot Act (2001)
act passed in response to the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, granting broad police authority to the federal, state, and local governments to interdict, prosecute, and convict suspected terrorists
the Ugly American
Pejorative term for Americans traveling or living abroad who remain ignorant of local culture and judge everything by American standards. The term is taken from the title of a book by Eugene Burdick and William Lederer.
theocracy
gov by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance
think tank
An institution in which scholars pursue research in public policy. Largely funded by endowments and grants, think tanks work to improve public awareness of policy issues (through publications) and to influence the government to act upon issues of national importance. (See power elite.)
Third political parties
Political parties that can be described as ideological, single-issue orientated, economically motivated, and personality driven. Examples include the Free Soil Party, Know-Nothings, Populist, and Bull Moose Parties. In 1996 Ross Perot created a new national third party called the Reform party.
Third-order devolution
The use of nongovernmental organizations to implement public policy. (Ch. 3)
Third-Partyism
The tendency of 3rd parties to arise with some regularity in a nominally 2-party system
thirteenth amendment
Abolished slavery
Thirty-second spots
Paid political ads 30 seconds in duration.
three-fifths compromise
Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention between southern and northern states. The south wanted slaves counted among the population for voting purposes but not for tax purposes; the North wanted the exact opposite. Both sides agreed that 3/5ths of a state's slave population would be counted toward both Congressional apportionment and taxation.
Title IX
Provision for the Education Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions receiving federal funds from discriminating against female students
totalitarianism
Form of government in which government's powers are unlimited.
Town or township
A subunit of county government in many eastern and Midwestern states. (Ch. 3)
Townshend Acts of 1767
Taxed goods imported directly from Britain. These also set soem of the tax collected aside for the payment of tax collectors, meaning that colonial assemblies coudl not withhold government officials' wages in order to get their way. Also, they suspended the NY legislature because it had refused to comply with a law requiring the colonist to supply British troops. THe colonists ultimately pressured the British into repealing these by organizing a successful boycott of British goods.
Tracking poll
Polls conducted by media outlets to gauge the potential outcome of a political election on a periodic basis.
treaty
a formal public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate
Trial Court
Court of original jurisdiction where a case begins
Trust funds
Funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget; the amounts are determined by preexisting law rather than by annual appropriations. The Social Security trust fund is the largest of these. See also Appropriation (Ch. 13)
trustee
an official who is expected to vote independetly basedon his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator
Trustee approach
The view that an elected representative should act on his or her own best judgment of what public policy requires. (Ch. 12)
turnout
the proportion of the voting age public that votes, sometimes as the nubmer of registered voters that vote
Twent-second Amendment (1951)
Limited the number of years an individual may serve as president. According to this, a president may be elected no more than twice.
Twenty-fifth Amendment
Constitutional amendment outlining the criteria for presidential selection and presidential disability.
Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964)
Outlawed poll taxes, which had been used to prevent the poor from voting.
twenty-second amendment
Limited the number of years an individual may serve as president
Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971)
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
Two-party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning. (Ch. 7)
Unalienable rights
Rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, which are derived from the doctrine of natural rights.
un-American
A term used, primarily by extreme conservatives, to attack principles or practices considered to be at odds with the values of most Americans. Many object to the use of the term on the grounds that it is vague, shortsighted, and intolerant. The House of Representatives maintained a Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) for several years. It was especially known for investigation of alleged communists. (See Alger Hiss.)
unanimous consent decree
Agreement passed by the Senate that establishes the rules under which a bill will be debated, amended, and voted upon.
Unanimous decisions
A decision made by the Supreme Court that has no dissent. A unanimous decision by the Court is 9-0.
Unfunded mandates
Those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states without federal funds to support them.
Unified government
A government in which the same party controls both the White House and both houses of Congress. When Bill Clinton became president in 1993, it was the first time since 1981 (and only the second time since 1969) that the same party was in charge of the presidency and Congress. See also Divided government (Ch. 12)
union shop
A workplace where an employee must pay dues or their equivalent to the union, but may not be fired if he or she fails to maintain membership in good standing in the union for any reason other than failure to pay such dues.
Unit Rule
A traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate
United Nations
International organization established following WWII. It aims to preserve international peace and foster international cooperation.
United States Information Agency
A federal agency responsible for spreading information favorable to the United States around the world.
Universal suffrage
Right of all qualified adults to vote.
unwritten Constitution
Certain deeply ingrained aspects of our government which are not mentioned in the Constitution, such as political parties; political conventions; and cabinet meetings.
US Regents Vs. Bakke
strict college admissions quotas unconstitutional but states may allow race to be taken into concideration as ONE factor in admissions decisions
US Vs. Lopez
Gun free school zones act exceeded congress' authority to regulated innerstate commerce
US Vs. Nixon
Allowed for executive privledges but not in criminal cases
US. v. Lopez significant?
From 1937 to 1995, the Supreme Court of the United States did not void a single Act of Congress for exceeding Congress's power under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, instead holding that anything that could conceivably have even a slight impact on commerce was subject to federal regulation. It was thus seen as a (narrow) victory for federalism when the Rehnquist Court reined in federal regulatory power in United States v. Lopez (1995) and United States v. Morrison (2000).
USA Freedom Corps?
The USA Freedom Corps is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States, the President serving as its chair. Its creation was announced by George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address of January 29, 2002, and it was officially established on January 30, 2002, the next day. Housed at the White House, it identifies itself as a "Coordinating Council... working to strengthen our culture of service and help find opportunities for every American to start volunteering." [1] A USA Freedom Corps Network promotes individual volunteer service opportunities within the United States and abroad. The council is also involved with U.S. federal government service programs such as the Peace Corps, Citizen Corps, AmeriCorps and Senior Corps.
Valence issue
An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party or candidate with conditions, goals, or symbols the electorate universally approves or disapproves of. Examples of such issues are economic prosperity and political corruption. See also Position issue (Ch. 8)
Veterans Administration
The second-largest cabinet department, the VA coordinates the distribution of benefits for veterans of the American armed forces and their dependents. The benefits include compensation for disabilities, the management of veterans’ hospitals, and various insurance programs.
Veterans of Foreign Wars
An organization of American veterans who have taken part in a foreign military campaign or expedition of the United States. Like the American Legion, it usually takes pro-defense stands on foreign policy issues.
vice-admiralty courts
Military courts, in which defendants are not entitled to a trial by jury of peers. These were established in the colonies to try colonial smugglers because colonial juries often sympathized with smugglers and would not convict them.
victimless crime
A term sometimes used for various acts that are considered crimes under the law but apparently have no victim. One such crime is prostitution, which is viewed by some as a commercial exchange between two consenting adults.
Virginia Plan
initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central gov with a bicamerl legislature, the lower house to be elected by the voters and the upper chosen by the lower, representation based on wealth or population
Voice vote
A congressional voting procedure in which members shout "yea" in approval or "nay" in disapproval; allows members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills. See also Division vote; Teller vote; Roll-call vote (Ch. 11)
voter registration
system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Act that finally made the Fifteenth Amendment a reality. As a result of this act, any state not eliminating the poll tax and literacy requirements would be directed to do so by the federal government. It also resulted in the establishment of racially gerrymandered congressional districts in the 1980s and 1990s.
Voting-age population
The citizens who are eligible to vote after reaching a minimum age requirement. In the United States a citizen must be at least eighteen years old in order to vote. (Ch. 6)
Wagner Act?
National Labor Relations Act of 1935; legalized union practices such as collective bargaining and the closed shop and outlawed certain antiunion practices such as blacklisting. Part of FDR's programs.
Wall-of-separation principle
A Supreme Court interpretation of the establishment clause in the First Amendment that prevents government involvement with religion, even on a nonpreferential basis. (Ch. 18)
Walsh-Healy Act?
Passed in 1936, the Walsh-Healy Act stated that workers must be paid not less than the prevailing minimumw age normally paid in a locality, restricted regular working hours to eigh hours a day, and 40 hours a week, with time and a half pay for additional hours, prohibited the employment of convicts and children under 18, and established sanitation and safety standards.
War on Poverty
Those programs of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society that were specifically aimed at assisting the poor were known collectively as this. Among these programs was Volunteers in Serivce to America (VISTA), Medidcaid, and the creation of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
War Powers Act
Passed in 1973 - President is Limited in deployment of troops overseas to a 60-day period in peacetime unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.
warren court
Supreme court best remembered for expanding rights of minorities and the accused.
Warren Court (1953-1969)
The Supreme Court durding the era in which Earl Warren served as the Chief Justice. It is best remembered for expanding the rights of minorities and the rights of the accused.
Watergate
Refers to the office complex in Washington, D.C., where members of the committee to re-elect Richard Nixon, posing as burglars, broke into the offices of the Democratic Party's national headquarters. They were caught, and the scandal ultimately led to Nixon's resignation.
Ways and Means Committee
A permanent committee of the House of Representatives, which makes recommendations to the House on all bills for raising revenue. The committee is the principal source of legislation concerning issues such as taxation, customs duties, and international trade agreements
Webster Vs. Reproductive Health Services
More leeway for states in regulating abortion
Wesberry Vs. Sanders
Ordered house districts to be as near population as possible
West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish
The Supreme Court struck down many of the FDR's New Deal reforms because they found they interfered with an individual's right to contract, implicit in the due process clause of the 14th amendmnet. This case, however, was when the supreme court basically overruled itself and started upholding many of FDRs laws, such as minimum wage, and laws limiting the number of working hours, etc. Effectively, one member of the court switched sides after FDR threatened to go to congress to ask to expand the number of supreme court justices so that he could attain a majority. The Judge's change of heart is known as the "switch in time that saved nine."
What are some exemptions to the 1966 FOIA?
National security, personal right to privacy, law enforcement, and well water geographic data. Most other info must be provided within 10 days under the 1966 Freedom of Information Act.
What are the 3 components of Social Security in the US?
Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance. Because of this, SS is sometimes called OASDI.
What labor arrangement does the federal governement operate under?
The Federal Government operates under "open shop" rules nationwide, although many of its employees are represented by unions. So, an employee cannot be compelled to join a union that may exist at the employer, nor can the employee be fired if s/he joins the union. In other words, the employee has the "right to work", whether as a union member or not.
What takes presedence, US domestic law or international law?
The US considers its domestic law to hold sway over international law. European nations tend to hold international law in a higer regard.
Which ammendments deal with due process?
The 5th and the 14th.
Whig Party
Political party from the 1830s to the 1850s. Loosely affiliated group of progressives and religious Americans whose common bond was their opposition to the Democratic Party. This disintegrated because of internal disputes concerning slavery.
Whip
A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, and attempts to keep a nose count on how the voting on controversial issues is likely to go. (Ch. 11)
White House staff
Managed by the White House Chief of Staff, who directly advises the president on a daily basis, it includes the more than 600 people who work at the White House, from the chef to the advance people who make travel arrangements. The key staff departments include Intergovernmental Affairs. It includes the support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries.
White primary
The practice of keeping African Americans from voting in primary elections (at the time, the only meaningful election in the one-party South was the Democratic primary) through arbitrary implementation of registration requirements and intimidation. Such practices were declared unconstitutional in 1944. (Ch. 6)
Who can legally violate equal opportunity laws?
Churches. They can discriminate in hiring based on religion.
Who determines the GAAPs for state and local governement?
The Governmental Accounting Standards Board, since 1984. It is a private, non-governmental, organization. The mission of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board is to establish and improve standards of state and local governmental accounting and financial reporting that will result in useful information for users of financial reports and guide and educate the public, including issuers, auditors, and users of those financial reports.
Who does the Freedom of Information Act apply to?
The 1966 Act applies only to federal agencies. However, all of the states, as well as the District of Columbia and some territories, have enacted similar statutes to require disclosures by agencies of the state and of local governments, though some are significantly broader than others. Many combine this with Open Meetings legislation, which requires government meetings to be held publicly.
Who does the General Accounting Office (GAO) report to?
Congress, on government expenditures and other assignments.
Who may suspend the writ of habeas corpus and when?
Who: Good question. Traditionally it was thought that only congress could do so as the power to suspend HC was found in article I of the constitution, wherein the legislature's powers are defined. Lincoln did it, and though it was found to be unconstitutional, he merely ignored the ruling. PResident Grant also did it.
Who must the president inform before conducting a covert military operation?
The Congressional intelligence committees. For the CIA, it is the senate foreign relations committe as well.
winner-take-all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Wire Service
An electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service's correspondents and sent to all member news media organizations
Work ethic
A belief in the importance of hard work and personal achievement. (Ch. 4)
Workfare
An alternative to the traditional welfare, where an individual is trained to work instead of receiving welfare.
World Bank
Called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, it provides monetary assistance to nations for the development of industries and aims to stimulate economic growth of third-world nations.
Worldviews
More or less comprehensive mental pictures of the critical problems facing the United States in the world and of the appropriate and inappropriate ways of responding to these problems. (Ch. 20)
writ of certiorari
a legal document issued by the Supreme Court to request the court transcripts of a case, indicated that the Court will review a lower court's decision
Writ of habeas corpus
A Latin term meaning "you shall have the body." A court order directing a police officer, sheriff, or warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge and show sufficient cause for his or her detention. The writ of habeas corpus was designed to prevent illegal arrests and imprisonment. (Ch. 2)
writ of mandamus
court order directing an official to perform an official duty
write-in candidate
A candidate for public office whose name does not appear on the ballot (usually because he or she has not secured the nomination of a political party) but whose name must be written on the ballot by voters.
Yankee
Originally a nickname for people from New England, now applied to anyone from the United States. Even before the American Revolutionary War, the term Yankee was used by the British to refer, derisively, to the American colonists. Since the Civil War, American southerners have called all northerners Yankees. Since World War I, the rest of the world has used the term to refer to all Americans. The expression Yankee, go home reflects foreign resentment of American presence or involvement in other nations’ affairs.
Yellow Journalism
A form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late-nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized, oversimplified news coverage
Zelman Vs. Simmons-Harris
Public money can be used to send dissadvantaged children to private schools/religious schools in tuition voucher programs