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What part of the cell contains the "powerhouse" or area where energy is generated?
What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
Name two different types of metabolism that nutrients can undergo?
Anabolism- building up large molecules from small molecules. Requires energy.
Catabolism- breaking down large molecules into small molecules. Releases energy.
What is glycolysis? It is the conversion of what?
Glycolysis is the splitting of glucose. It is converted into Pyruvate.
Acetyl CoA molecules cannot form what for energy?
What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic reaction?
Anaerobic- latin acid (lactate) such as a short fast sprint.
Aerobic- Acetyl CoA (greater total energy yield) such as hiking for an hour.
Describe the Cori cycle
The process of converting lactate to glucose from the muscles in the liver that can be returned to the muscles.
What is the first product of fatty acid catabolism?
Beta unsaturated Acetyl CoA
Which compound cannot be formed by fatty acids?
If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, what compound can be converted to glucose?
Amino acids and Lipids (glycerol)
In which type of diet does the body's need for water increase (high CHO or high protein)? Why?
High protein diet, because people who eat excessive amounts of protein and don't up there water intake rise their blood urea nitrogen level (which measures kidney function). High protein causes kidneys to produce concentrated urine which makes the kidneys work harder.
When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which ones can lead to storage of fat?
Anything consumed in excess can lead to fat storage.
Describe the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose
Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron transport chain.
Describe the ETC (electron transport carrier). What are the end products from the electron transport chain?
Passing electrons from carrier to carrier along the chain releases enough energy to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane. ATP is produced.
Which substrate can be synthesized from all three energy-yielding nutrients?
After the first day or so of fasting what is depleted the most in the body?
What substrate is used to supply some of the fuel needed by the brain only after the body has been fasting for a while?
Ketones are produced when glucose is not available. Ketosis causes a suppression of the appetite.
What is the recommended max amount of alcohol intakes for men and women?
5oz wine women=1 glass a day men=2
10 oz wine cooler
12 oz beer
1 1/2 oz distilled liquor (2 shots)
What organ is the first to absorb alcohol after a person takes a drink?
Stomach, especially if there is no food in there.
What is the purpose of liver alcohol dehydrogenase?
To breakdown alcohol in the stomach.
Stages of liver deterioration
1. Fatty Liver
The liver, like the skin, can regenerate itself but only to a point.
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