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48 terms

Psychology Chapter 9: Lifespan Development

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developmental psychology
The branch of psychology taht studies how people change over the lifespan.
zygote
The single cell formed at conception from the union of the egg cell and the sperm cell.
Chromosome
A long, threadlike structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA, found in the cell nucleus.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic instructions, the chemical basis of heredity.
gene
A unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule
The basic unit of heredity.
genotype
The genetic makeup of an individual organism.
human genome
The scientific description of the complete set of DNA in the human organism, including gene locations
allele
One of the different forms of a particular gene.
phenotype
The observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors.
sex chromosomes
Chromosomes, designated as X or Y, that determine biological sex.
23rd pair of chromosomes in humans
parental stage
The stage of development before birth; divided into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods
germinal period
The first two weeks for prenatal development.
embryonic period
The second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week through the eight week.
teratogens
Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformationa or defects in an embryo or fetus.
fetal period
The third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth.
temperament
Inborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way.
attachment
The emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregiver(s), especially his or her parents.
Mary D. Salter
Came up with the idea of a secure base, an idea that the caregiver porovides a sense of comfort and security for the infant.
comprehension vocabulary
The words that are understood by an infant or child.
production vocabulary
The words that an infant or child understand and can speak.
sensorimotor stage
In Piaget's Theory, the first stage of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2, the period during which the infant explores theenvironemtna nd acquires knowledge through sesing and manipulating objects.
object permanence
The understand that an object continues to exist when it can no longer be seen.
preoperational stage
In Piaget's theory, the second stage of cognitive development,which lasts from about age 2 to age 7;
Characterized by increasing use symbols and prelogical thought processes.
symbolic thought
The ability to use words, images and symbols to represent the world.
egocentrism
In Piaget's theory, the inability to take another person's perspective or point of view
irreversibility
In Piaget's theory, the inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations.
centration
In Piaget's theory, the tendency to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation.
conservation
In Piaget's theory, the understading that two equal quantitites remain equal eventhrough the form or apperance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted.
concrete operational stage
In Piaget;s theory, the third stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 7 to adolescence;
Characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations.
formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the fourth stage of cognitive development, which lasts from adolescence through adulthood;
Characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations.
Lev Vygotsky
Believed cognitive development is strongly influenced by soical and cultural factors. Created zone of proximal development.
Zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development, the difference between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others who are more competent.
Information-processing model of cognitive development
The model that views cognitive development as a process that is continued over the lifespan and that studies the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving.
Adolescence
The traditional stage between late childhood and the beggining of adulthood, during which sexual maturity is reached
puberty
The stage of adolescence in which an individual reachessexual maturity and becomes psychologically capable of sexual reproduction.
primary sex characteristics
Sexual organs that are directly involved in reproduction, such as the uterus, overies, penis and testicles.
secondary sex characteristics
Sexual chracteristics that develop during puberty and are not directly involved in reproduction but differiantiate between the sexes, such as male facial hair and female breast development
adolescent growth spurt
The period of accelrated growth during puberty, involving rapid increases in height and weight.
menarche
A female's first menstrual period, which occurs during puberty.
identity
A person's definition or description of himself or herself, including the value, beliefs and ideals that guide the individual's behavior.
menopause
The natural cessation of menstruation and the end of reproductive capacity in women.
activity theory of aging
The psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level of activity they displayed later in life.
authoritarian parenting style
Parenting style in which are demanding and unresponsive toward their children's needs or wishes.
permissive parenting style
Parenting styke in which parents are extremely tolerant and not demanding;
Permissive-indulgent parents are more responsive to their children's needs and wishes.
induction
A discipline technique that combines parental control with explaining why a behavior is prohibited.
Renee Balliargeon
Candian-born psychologist whose studies on cognitive development during infancy using visual rather than manual tasks challenged beliefs about an age at which object permanence first appears.
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist whose influential theory proposed that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development.
Erik Erikson
German-born American psychoanalyst who proposed an influential theory of psychological development throughout the lifespan.