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History Industrial Revolution
Terms in this set (46)
City building and the movement of people to cities. Some cities, such as Glasgow and Berlin, tripled or even quadrupled in size.
An increase in production brought about by the use of machines and characterized by the use of new energy sources
These were the middle-class "haves" or employers.
The "have-nots" or workers. Working class.
Horrible living quarters for poor families, also used for new inexpensive housing for people moving in.
The factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. Socialism grew out of an optimistic view of human nature, a belief in progress, and a concern for social justice.
An economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making a profit. These ideas helped bring about the industrial revolution.
In favor of a limited government.
Invented by James Watt in 1781. He was in business with an entrepreneur who invested money into him finding a better steam engine.
Basic needs to be able to industrialize, such as coal to provide steam power, Iron ore to make machines, and colonies to send raw materials like cotton or lumber.
Invented by Richard Arkwright in 1769.
Built by George Stephenson in 1814. Very important as it got natural resources and other materials made from factories across places.
A type of cloth or woven fabric.
An investment of money. People with wealth would invest in a business.
Introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism. Also known as communism. He described a class struggle between the bourgeoise and proletariat. Proletariat overthrows the bourgeoise and takes control of means of production and sets up a classless society.
A professor at the university of Glasgow, Scotland, defended the idea of a free economy, or free markets, in his 1776 book "The Wealth of Nations". According to Smith, economic liberty guaranteed economic progress. Smith claimed that Government need not to interfere with economy. Believed in the "Hands off approach" which is Laissez-faire economics.
Wealthy land owners buy up land and fence it in, and try new farming techniques to improve productivity. Make farmers pay rent, or kick them off. Crop rotation was led by the movement.
Goods are manufactured by machine.
Made by Eli Whitney in 1794, Reduced the time to separate cotton seeds from cotton fiber, dramatically.
Invented by Jethro Tull in 1701. A farming technique that planted seeds in straight lines.
Invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. Capable of spinning eight threads of cotton yarn.
refers to the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference. This policy favors a free market unregulated by the government. The term comes from a French phrase that means "let do," and by extension, "let the people do as they please". A "Hands off Approach" supported by Adam Smith.
Form of complete socialism in which the means of production- all lands, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses- would be owned by the people. Private property would in effect cease(come to an end) to exist. all goods and services would be shared equally. Radical form of socialism.
A business carried on in a persons home.
A waterway which allowed boats or ships inland or to convey water for irrigation. Used for transporting goods.
A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business. (For an example, James watt joined with a businessman named Matthew Boulton, who paid Watt a salary and encouraged him to build better engines).
Made a cotton gin in 1794. Dramatically reduced the time to separate cotton seeds from the cotton fiber.
Wanted some government intervention. Goal of the government is to pass laws that provide that "greatest good for the greatest number of people"
Setup ideal community(Land mark) He refused to use child labor, limited work hours, encouraged labor unions, and paid workers well.
Built the simple electric motor in 1821. This is the basic start of electricity.
What were five factors that allowed Britain to industrialize first?
England had a large population of workers, they also
England had many Natural resources, needed for industrialization. Examples: Water power and coal to fuel the new machines; Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings; rivers for inland transportation harbors from which its merchant ships set sail. Also, Britain had an expanding economy to support industrialization. Businesspeople invested in the manufacture of new inventions.
1. Enclosure movement- Wealthy landowners ended open field system to increase efficiency and productivity.(New agricultural improvements, new inventions/discoveries, crop rotation which used turnips to enrich the soil, and this resulted in increased lifespan and infant mortality rates, small farmers forced off of farms to towns and cities to find work).
2. Good labor supply- Large number of workers (Labor= workers)
3. Natural resources- Coal, Iron ore, waterways, resources from colonies(Wool, cotton).
4. Investment capital- available money. (Entrepreneur are people who starts a business).
5. Markets- Markets are the people who purchase the goods
6. Government support- Patent laws encourage investment.(Patent Government protection for an invention or idea) No additional tariffs, taxes on imported goods, and political stability.
7. Mobile society- ability to move up in society. Work ethic admired
What were political, economic, and social effects of the Industrial Revolution?
Economic- Things were cheaper like clothing, but made the natural resources run out
Social- People could interact with each other faster and get around faster, the industrial revolution made families separate because of work
How did the agricultural revolution help start the industrial revolution?
More food kept the population growing, and the bigger the population the more workers for the industrialization has.
What was the importance of new inventions during the industrial revolution?
Allowed other inventories to build off of the invention, as one invention leads to another. Inventions made life easier and a lot of improvement in life.
How did the poor conditions of cities and factories lead to reform movements?
Working people became more active in politics. To press reforms, worked joined together in voluntary associations called unions.
Wages were low. Hours were long. Children from the age of 5 and women held jobs in factories and mines. Poor lighting and sanitation. Dangerous working conditions.
Small companies. Workers and employers worked side by side. If the worker asked for a raise, he would probably get it as if it was a small company, and he got fired, it could hurt the business of the company.
Negotiations between workers and their employers. they bargained for a better working conditions and higher pay. If factory owners refused these demands, union members could strike,e or refuse to work. Large companies used this.
A social class of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers.
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.
Problems caused by the industrial revolution
1. The gap between the rich and the poor
2. Suffering of the working classes
3. Prosperity of the middle and upper classes
6. Dangerous work environments.
Said the population grows faster than the food supply. Need wars and disease to kill off extra population. Supported Laissez-faire(hands off approach)
Supported Laissez-faire (Hands off approach). As wages increased people had larger families so their living conditions never got better
Charles Fournier, Saint-Simon
They both believed in Socialism. They both did not like the gap between rich and the poor. Solution is the government own the means of production. This means no private companies.
The perfect society.
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