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APUSH Unit 6 Vocab
Pageant Chapters 23-26
Terms in this set (114)
Age of history that occurred right after the end of the Civil War, brought lots of growth to America including lots of immigration from Europe
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars., During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
A group of friends of William Tweed, who held offices in politics because of their friendship. Known as the Tweed ring because of the group of friends.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
The presidencies during the Gilded Age were sometimes known as forgettable because of their lack of work done while in office
is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
a person who is loyal to their allegiance (especially in times of revolt)
republican reformers who supported the spoils system
Republican political activists who bolted from the US republican party by voting for the democratic party candidate
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
1883, enacted civil service reform, said the Civil Service Exam must be taken in order to recieve most government jobs (highest scores got the jobs), banned federal employees from giving campaign money to their party
economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs,government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations sufficient to protect property rights against theft and aggression.
The idea of a railroad system that ran across the United States to help with the transportation of goods
Pacific Railway Act
A series of scts passed from congress that promoted the construction of the transcontinental railroad in the US through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies
Union Pacific Railraod
Largest Railroad network in the US. Was the first company to begin laying down the rail of the Transcontinental Railroad system
Nickname for the Irish immigrants to the US during the gilded age
Central Pacific Railroad
name of the railroad built between California and Utah. Worked to build the Transcontinental Railroad
was an asian slave or manual worker. Asians that immigrated to the US and worked to lay down rail
Point in Utah where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed. The crews celebrated with placing real golden spikes into the last track laid.
American buisness man leader who controlled the new york central railroad and up to 4.500 miles of track
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
agreements between companies to maintain prices at a certain level
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash case, 1886
was a United States Supreme Court case that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Limited States' rights
Interstate Commerce Act
prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
First independent regulatory agency (1887) to bring order concerning railroads; can take public testimony on possible violation; can examine company records; can oversee enforcement of law
Alexander Graham Bell
He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.
Thomas A. Edison
American inventor famous for the light bulb and his inventions which use electricity, One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
a group of corporations run by a single board of directors
practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change a raw material into a finished product
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
J. Pierpont Morgan
He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation.
United States Steel Corporation
a holding company created by J. P. Morgan. It was the first billion dollar company, a consolidation of the steel industry
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
Gustavus F. Swift
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.
One who has recently become rich, especially one who vulgarly displays wealth
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies
The Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
US v. EC Knight Co.
1895- limited the government's power to control monopolies. The American Sugar Refining Company gained control of the E.C. Knight Company and other resulting in a 98% monopoly of the American sugar refining industry. President Cleveland directs the national government to sue the Knight Company under the provisos of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to prevent the acquisition. The Court ruled that the manufacturing- in this case refining- was a local activity and not subject to congressional regulation. Any action against manufacturing combinations would need to be taken by individual states., The case against the sugar trust resulted with the Supreme Court declaring manufacturing was an intrastate activity. This was significant because Roosevelt was trying to put a fine line down for the end of monopolies
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South
Second Industrial Revolution
(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and radio. Provided widespread employment and increased production.
people brought in to work for those on strike for cheaper, often led to violence from unions. Which took away credibility from unions and sympathy from the society.
action where management refuses to let workers who are making demands into the workplace
the promise that Southerners had to make in order to regain voting rights
"yellow dog contracts"
Contracts that force employees to agree not to join a union or participate in any union activity as a condition of employment
list that circulated among employers containing the names of persons who should not be hired, a list of people who are out of favor
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence
Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes
Haymarket Square bombing
(1886); people were rallying for the workers who were striking in chicago. the police came and someone threw a bomb; people were killed, trial followed, and some men sentenced to death.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
A private detective agency founded in 1850. During the labor unrest of the late 19th century, Pinkertons were hired to infiltrate labor unions, and as security guards. They were well known for their involvement in the Homestead Strike, where they protected the strikebreakers.
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - President Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
an order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
In 1905 DuBois started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with white progressives sympathetic to their cause to form NAACP, the new organization later led to the drive for equal rights.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
leading center for African American education, emphasized vocational, practical education, believed approach was for self reliance
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
Bureau of Indian Affaris
tried to assimilate Indians through education and interfered with indian religion and tribal customs
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
George A. Custer
He was a Military leader in the Battle of Little Big Horn. Found Gold in Black Hills and forced Sioux out (Little Big Horn)
Battle of Little Big Horn
Sioux leader sitting bull led the fight against general George Custer and the 7th cavalry. The Sioux wanted miners out of the black hills, and had appealed to government officials in Washington to stop the miners. Washington doesn't listen. When custer came to little bighorn rivers sitting bull and his warriors were ready and killed them all!
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
A ritual the Sioux performed to bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land.
The Plains Indians depended on this for food, tool making and clothing.
Helen Hunt Jackson: A Century of Dishonor
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
name for the moving of cattle across the plains to the railroad terminals
Used to fence in land on the Great Plains, eventually leading to the end of the open frontier.
1874 invented a superior type of barbed wire and in 1883 the company was producing 600 miles of the product each day; the barbed wire was used against trespassing cattle
Oklahoma Land Rush
1889; former Indian lands;opened up for settlement, resulting in a race to lay claim for a homestead (Boomers and Sooners)
"Safety valve" theory
As the pop. Of US begins to increase there has always been a way to release pop. Pressure: West has always acted as a safety valve; by 1890 valve was gone... no more frontier
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
"Billion Dollar" Congress
Republican congress of 1890. passed record # of significant laws that helped shape later policies and asserted authority of federal govt., gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
A monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
McKinley Tariff Bill
This bill raised the duty on nearly every foreign good that competed with American production (furniture, carpets, tools, etc.), 1890 bill calling for the highest peacetime tariff yet: 48.4 percent. It gave a bounty of two cents a pound to American sugar producers, and raised tariffs on agricultural products. The duties on manufactured goods hurt farmers financially.
A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
Greenback Labor Party
Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor
Populism- Rise of Populist Party
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
Occured in the south/great plains. small farmers got together to fight against merchants, RRs, and the wealthy. Leaders travelled to lecture/recruit. This promoted loyalty and agricultural education. Women were involved, and Blacks formed their own.
Mary E. Lease
The fiery populist orator was a fixture in the Alliance circut in 1890s. she made 160 speeches in 1890 alone."raise less corn and more hell"
Election of 1892
James Weaver of Iowa, was the Populist candidate for President and won 1 million votes (also won electoral votes); lost badly in the South and failed to attack urban workers in the North; Harrison vs. Cleveland again and Cleveland won because of the unpopularity of the high-tax McKinley tariff (first president to serve two unconsecutive terms)
General James B. Weaver
Nominee of the populists in the election of 1892, after Leonidas Polk died shortly before convention. . At their conventions, the Republicans re-nominated Benjamin Harrison and the Democrats nominated former president Grover Cleveland. The Populists won over 1 million popular votes and twenty-two electoral votes. They cut into Republican strength in the Midwest and thus enabled Cleveland to carry the election.
political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
This organization better known as the Grange, was organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley; its objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement of the farmer' collective plight
Panic of 1893
Sharp economic downturn that began when the railroad industry faltered during the early 1890s followed by the collapse of many related industries
William Jennings Bryan
Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader
Morgan bond transaction
J. Pierpont Morgan and August Belmont agreed to lend the government $62 million in exchange for a special discount on U.S. bonds. With this money the U.S. government restored its gold supply while Morgan and Belmont made a handsome profit selling the bonds to the public.
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time
Wilson Gorman Bill
slightly lower tariff after mckinley tariff, amended by big-business lobbyists over 630 times; also included a 2 percent income tax on incomes over $4000.
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by historians to be one of the most dramatic in American history.
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
Used the money he made in the iron business to support William McKinley's presidential campaign. He became a personification of big business in politics.
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Dingley Tariff Bill
Raised tariff pushed through in 1897 by Republicans who had contributed strongly to Mark Hanna's campaign. Lobbyists raised the average rates to 46.5 percent.
Gold Standard Act of 1900
provided that paper currency be redeemed freely in gold only; caused the Populists to fade away
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