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23 terms

Diversity of Life Textbook: Chapter 1 Introduction to Living Things

Diversity of Life Textbook: Chapter 1 Introduction to Living Things (not including Lesson 4 vocabulary!!!!)
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organism
a living thing
cell
the basic unit of structure and function in living things
unicellular
an organism made of one cell
multicellular
an organism consisting of many cells
metabolism
the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
stimulus
any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react in some way
response
an action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus
development
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
asexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism which differs from both parents
spontaneous generation
the mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources
controlled experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
autotroph
an organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food
heterotroph
an organism that cannot make its own food and gets food by consuming other living things
homeostasis
the condition in which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment
classification
the process of grouping things based on their similarities
taxonomy
the scientific study of how living things are classified
binomial nomenclature
the classification system in which each organism is given a unique, two-part scientific name indicating its genus and species
genus
a classification grouping that consists of a number of similar, closely related species
species
a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce
prokaryote
a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and some other cell structures
nucleus
in cells, a large oval organelle that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell's activities
eukaryote
an organism whose cells contain a nucleus