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energy transporter used in Calvin Cycle


holds two high energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion, which converts into NADPH


(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work


Similar structure to ATP but has only 2 phosphate groups. Partly charged


The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.


saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts


stacks of thylakoids

calvin cycle

reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars

light reaction

The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.


Sugar, Manufactured during photosynthesis, Main source of energy for plants and animals, Metabolized during cellular respiration


cellular organelles where cellular respiration occurs


organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy


a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color


A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.


first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid

lactic acid

waste product produced by Fermentation; causes muscles to be sore


When yeast goes through anaerobic resparation, what comes out as a biproduct?


process that requires oxygen


process that does not require oxygen.


a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass

dynamic equilibrium

A condition that is stable within certain levels


the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules




a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction


a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable


6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

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