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53 terms

American Pageant

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John Calvin
1536, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, creating the basic tenants of Calvinism, from Geneva
Anne Hutchinson
Challenged Puritan Church, banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony, went to Rhode Island, then New York. Antinomianism = a holy is life is no sure sign of salvation, so no need to bother obeying the law of God or man
Calvinism
Predestination, God decided who was going to heaven before birth, good works could not save you, led by John Calvin
Roger Williams
Separatist, called for clean break with Church of England, challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's charter, denied authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior, escaped banishment by fleeing to Rhode Island
Mayflower Compact
Agreement by Pigrim leaders from Mayflower to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon
Pilgrims
Group of Separatists from Holland who negotiated with the Virginia Company to allow them to settle in New England to escape the Church of England, 1620, established Puritanism
Separatists
Group of extreme Puritans who vowed to break away from the Church of England
"visible saints"
those who, based on the beliefs of Calvinism, are predestined by God, and therefore lead holy lives to demonstrate this fact
predestination
The idea that, since the moment of creation, some souls, the elect, have been destined for eternal bliss, others for eternal torment
The "elect"
Those souls who had, from the first moment of creation, been destined for eternal bliss
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629, formed when a group of non-Separatist Puritans got a royal charter, with Boston as capital. Became largest and most influential New England outpost
John Winthrop
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, believed he had a "calling" from God to govern, "city on a hill"
Freemen
Adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations
General Court
Representative assembly elected by the freemen in Massachusetts Bay Colony
"Protestant work ethic"
Serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits
Thomas Hooker
Preacher, led group of Boston Puritans to Hartford, CT in 1836
Fundamental Orders
Basically a modern constitution, established a regime democratically controlled by the "substantial" citizens, 1839
Middle colonies
Includes PA, NY, & NJ, midway between New England and South in respects of landholdings, government, and industry & most diverse population
Quakers
AKA Religious Society of Friends, arose in England in mid-1600s
William Penn
Est. asylum for his fellow Quakers in 1681, called area Pennsylvania (Penn's Woodland)
Dominion of New England
1686: Royal authority combined MA, RI, NH, & CT, headed by a royal governor, aimed at bolstering colonial defense against Indians & promoted efficiency of the English Navigation Laws
New England Confederation
Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and other CT settlements banded together for defense against the French, Dutch, and Indians while Britain was at war. Also dealt with runaway servants or criminals. Each colony = 2 votes
Protestant Reformation
religious reform that swept across Europe for more than a century. Ignited by Martin Luther. Influenced John Calvin.
John Cotton
Criticized the Church of England, fled to Massachusetts Bay Colony, defended government's duty to enforce religious rules
Puritans
Group of English religious reformers who wanted a total purification of English Christianity. Later moved to the Netherlands, then to America on the Mayflower.
Bread colonies
Middle colonies dubbed this for high export of grain
Sir Edmund Andros
Disliked governor of the Dominion of New England 1686-1692
Navigation Laws
Series of laws that restricted the colonies' foreign trade starting in 1651
Glorious Revolution
1688-1689 King James II left peacefully when Parliament asked him to resign, William III & Mary II took the throne without any war or bloodshed, other-throws Dominion of New England
Dutch East India Company
Chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies
Henry Hudson
Made Dutch claim to Hudson River, NY, and DE Bay
Dutch West India Company
Dutch investment company formed in 1621 with outposts in North America & Africa and a sugar industry in Brazil
New Netherland
Est in 1623-1624 by Dutch West India Company for fur trade in Hudson River area
New Amsterdam
Run by and for Dutch company in interest of the stockholders with a cosmopolitan population
New Sweden
Swedes colony from 1638-1655 planted on Delaware River trespassing the Dutch preserves
Peter Stuyvesant
Led small Dutch military expedition in 1655 to get rid of New Sweden
Duke of York
Granted by Charles II the area of New Amsterdam in 1664, thereupon renamed New York
New York
Had disproportionate power, monopolistic land policies, & lordly atmosphere that retarded physical growth
Chief Tammany
Indian who sold land to William Penn
Blue Laws
prevented "ungodly revelers" from staging plays, playing cards, dice, games, and excessive hilarity
Lord De La Warr
Harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish tactics" against the Indians
Delaware
Granted own assembly in 1703 but remained under governor of PA until American Revolution
Lord John Berkeley
Sold West New Jersey in 1674 to William Penn and Quakers
Sir George Carteret
Him and Berkeley got half of NJ, his widow sold East New Jersey to William Penn and Quakers
Rhode Island
1636: Roger Williams founded, granted religious freedom for all & universal suffrage
Conneticut
1635: Dutch & English settlers founded, adopted Fundamental Orders (1st written Constitution)
Maine
After several ill-fated attempts at colonization in 1623 by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, it was added to the MA Bay Colony, home to mostly fishermen
Residue of Dominion
1691, MA made a royal colony, could no longer restrict vote to church-goers, more English officials with more power
Charles II
King of England, against Puritans, pro-Church of England, punished Bay Colony by revoking charter, 1684, gave William Penn land grant, 1861
Plymouth
Original colony formed by the Pilgrims in 1620
William Bradford
Second governor of the Plymouth Colony, in office for a total of 30 years, helped colony survive in America
Conversion
Religious experience where God reveals to member of "elect" that he is predestined for heaven
New Hampshire
1641, added to Bay Colony