Intro to Small Animal Mgmt - Stages of Anesthesia

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Terms in this set (...)

Stage 1
Onset stage;begins immediately after injected/inhalant is induced;remains conscious until stage 2;unsure howl;ong patient will remain in this stage;no loss of reflexes;pain perception threshold not lowered; HR is normal
Stage 1 Pupil Size
Normal
Stage 1 Breathing
Regular
Stage 1 Palpebral
Normal
Stage 1 Laryngeal
Normal
Stage 1 Pedal
Normal
Stage 1 Muscle Tone
Normal
Stage 2
Excitement stage;Characterized by uninhibited excitement;
Exaggerated reflexes
Palprebral, pedal, and laryngeal;
Muscle tone = hyperactive or spastic/stiff;Need to progress through this rapidly to minimize effects;NPO:
Vomiting = aspiration
Uncontrolled movement
Animal may bite/kick/hurt staff or themselves;Agitation and Delerium
may occur;animals may reenter stage 2 when recovering from anesthesia;if given by IV or chamber we can control how much anesthetic is used to help them move through stage 2; IM there is no control
Stage 2 Pupil Size
Dilated
Stage 2 Breathing
Irregular
Stage 2 Palpebral
Exaggerated
Stage 2 Pedal
Exaggerated
Stage 2 Laryngeal
Exaggerated
Stage 2 Muscle Tone
Hyperactive
Stage 3
Surgical; Four Different Planes;Light for surgical procedures that cause deep pain;Pedal reflex is only decreased;Great for superficial wounds/suture and; nail trims;Righting reflex is lost (best indicator of this plane);May start to prep Shave; scrub; HR begins to decreased;Can still feel discomfort and deep pain;Length depends and will always be different;Can intubate;End of Plane 1 Jaw tone = more relaxed Laryngeal will be lost
Intubation can occur
Stage 3 Plane 1
Light for surgical procedures that cause deep pain;Pedal reflex is only decreased
;Great for superficial wounds/sutures and nail trims;Righting reflex is lost (best indicator of this plane);May start to prep
Shave and scrub;Can still feel discomfort and deep pain;Length depends and will always be different;Righting reflex is lost during the stage; best indicator to know if you're in Plane 1; check jaw bone once the reflex is lost;HR begins to decrease;End of Plane 1 Laryngeal will be lost,intubation can occur, and jaw bone will be more relaxed
Stage 3 Plane 1 Pupil Size
Constricted
Stage 3 Plane 1 Breathing
Deep and Irregular
Stage 3 Plane 1 Palpebral
Decreased
Stage 3 Plane 1 Pedal
Decreased
Stage 3 Plane 1 Laryngeal
Decreased
Stage 3 Plane 1 Muscle Tone
Slightly Relaxed
Stage 3 Plane 2
BEST plane for surgery;Pedal is lost! (best indicator of this plane); may cause deep pain now;All other reflexes also absent;HR is normal;Can start to make an incision
Stage 3 Plane 2 Pupil Size
Normal/Fixed
Stage 3 Plane 2 Breathing
Regular
Stage 3 Plane 2 Palpebral
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 2 Pedal
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 2 Laryngeal
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 2 Muscle Tone
Moderately Relaxed
Stage 3 Plane 3
Deep anesthesia!!!! - very painful procedures = open thorax; pinning fractures; extensive abdominal exploratory;Start to lose ability to use chest/abdominal muscles for respiratory efforts may need to use assisted ventilation if this plane is desired;HR brachycardic
Stage 3 Plane 3 Pupil Size
Dilated
Stage 3 Plane 3 Breathing
Slow,Shallow
Stage 3 Plane 3 Palpebral
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 3 Pedal
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 3 Laryngeal
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 3 Muscle Tone
Markedly Relaxed
Stage3 Plane 4
Death is creeping in;chest muscles stop working;assisted ventilation is almost always necessary;don't confuse with Stage 2;HR brachycardic
Stage 3 Plane 4 Pupil Size
Moderately Dilated
Stage 3 Plane 4 Breathing
Jerky,Gasping
Stage 3 Plane 4 Palpebral
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 4 Pedal
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 4 Laryngeal
Absent
Stage 3 Plane 4 Muscle Tone
Limp
Stage 4
OD/Death stage;Time between respiratory arrest and circulatory failure;Onset of apnea
Assisted ventilation!!;HR = hypotension; circulatory failure; need IV fluids to in crease BP;Emergency drugs Epinephrine (IC),Adrenalin,Dopamne(Sublingual);usually results in a flat line with breathing going first then heart going second
Stage 4 Pupil Size
Fixed,fully Dilated
Stage 4 Breathing
Stops
Stage 4 Palpebral
None
Stage 4 Pedal
None
Stage 4 Laryngeal
None
Stage 4 Muscle Tone
Limp