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120 terms

Exam IV

A/P Fourth exam
STUDY
PLAY
A condition that can result from a deficiency of vitamin A.
night blindness
A condition of deafness that may result from otosclerosis
Conduction deafness
An inflammation of the lining of the middle ear.
Otitis media
. A condition often leading to blindness due to increased intraocular pressure.
glaucoma
The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and is reflected over the anterior surface of the eyeball is the conjunctiva.
TRUE
The photoreceptor cells are sensitive to damage from light.
TRUE
Both the cornea and the lens are vascular
False
Sour taste receptors are stimulated by hydrogen ions of acidic food substances.
True
Retinal detachment always results in loss of vision
FALSE
The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with that outside the body is the external auditory meatus t/f
FALSE
. The bending of light rays is called reflection
False
the anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor
false
Theoretically, an individual born without a middle ear would be able to hear by bone conduction with a hearing aid
TRUE
When we move from darkness to bright light, retinal sensitivity is lost, but visual acuity is gained
TRUE
. What is the main function of the rods in the eye
vision in dim light
What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
Iris
Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?
olfactory receptor cells
Farsightedness is more properly called ________.
hyperopia
Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.
A) eye
Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.
has no blood supply
There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?
ganglion cells
What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close? form what GLand?
TARSAL GLAND SECRETIONS
Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate
Vitamin supplements will reverse degenerative changes.
. Motion sickness seems to ________.
D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
In the uterus ________.
despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established
. Most newborns ________.
A) are myopic
B) often use only one eye at a time
C) see in tones of red and green only
D) cry with copious tears
B) often use only one eye at a time
The blind spot of the eye is where
the optic nerve leaves the eye
The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.
inferior oblique
. Light passes through the following structures in which order
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
Which statement about sound localization is not true?
It requires processing at the cortical level.
Visible light fits between ________.
D) UV and infrared
In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation
True
The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone
True
The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin
False
Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.
True
Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine
True
. The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.
hypophysis (pituitary)
The gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction
Adrenal Medulla
. Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body
Pancreas
Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue.
Parathyroid
Produces the body's major metabolic hormones
Thyroid
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the
Thymus gland
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
Enzyme
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.
hormones
. Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
Epinephrine
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
humoral stimulation
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
bones and skeletal muscles
Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood
Which organ does not have hormone production?
skin
What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acidbased hormones?
calcium
. ________ are hormones synthesized from cholesterol
Steroids
The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ________.
Thyroid
The ________ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity.
pineal
The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor
false
Odorants must be volatile to be smelled
TRUE
What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
vision in dim light
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults.
Myxedema
Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex.
Cushing's Disease
Hypersecretion of growth hormone
Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants
Cretinism
. Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production.
True
Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin
false
. Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the
Thymus gland
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called
hormones
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.
A) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.
down-regulation
Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
Epinephrine
The stirrup bone of the internal ear is also known as
Stapes...
The cochlear nerve transmits impulses to the auditory cortex located in
Temporal lobe
Lacrimal glands are located on which surface of the eye
medial superior
tough, white connective tissue forms this portion of the fibrous layer of the eye
Scerla
The gland that produces tears in the eye is called the:
lacrimal gland
The pupil is an opening within the
iris
Which layer of the eye contains rods and cones
iris
The gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward
vitrious humor
What structure of the eye focuses light on the retina
lens
The inability to see distant objects is termed "nearsighted" or
myopia
The auditory ossicle called the "anvil" is also called the
Incus
Dynamic equilibrium receptors are found in the ear where?
semicurcular canals
Gustatory hairs are to taste as olfactory hairs are to
smell
Which one of the following is NOT a primary taste sensation
pungent
The only special sense that is NOT fully functional at birth is
hearing
White of the eye
Sclera.
Gland that releases tears
Lacrimal
Type of photoreceptor cell that detects colors
cones
Flexible biconvex crystal-like structure
lens
Transparent portion of the fibrous layer
cornea
Type of humor located in the posterior segment
vitrious humor
Contains millions of photoreceptors
Retina
Area of greatest visual acuity
Fovea centralis
Blind spot
Optic disc
Sugar, saccharine
sweet receptors
Oranges, tomatoes
sour receptors
Amino acid glutamate
unami receptors
Alkaloids
bitter
. Metal ions in solution
salty receptors
The olfactory receptors are responsible for the sense of taste
False
An enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from a deficiency of dietary iodine is called:
goiter
The element necessary in the diet for proper thyroid function is
Iodine
Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex hormones results in skin bronzing, feeling of burn-out, and suppression of the immune system; this condition is known as
addisons disease
The "fight-or-flight" response triggers the release of
epinephrine (adrenalin)
The study of hormones and endocrine organs is known as immunology
false
All hormones can arouse and bring about changes in all cells of the human body
false
The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are actually made by the hypothalamus.
true
Ear wax is produced by?
Ceruminuos Glands
The structure that divides the middle ear from the outer is a membrane known as?
Tympanic membrane
Thymosin is produced where?
Thymus
What gland produces melatoin
pineal
what produces testostrone
Testes
Glands that act as anagonist to thyroid
parathyroid
Gland that hangs from the from the hypothalmus
pituitary gland
producer of female hormones
Ovaries
gland responsible for metabolism
thyroid
where are cones located in the eye
Retina
what part of the eye lacks photoreceptors?
Optic disc
storehouse for hormones
pituitary gland
produces steroid hormones
adreneal
neuroendocrine organ
hypothalmus