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mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situation

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

general intelligence

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

factory analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing


the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive understand, manage, and use emotions

mental age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8


the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test

intelligence quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

achievement test

a teat designed to assess what a person has learned

aptitude test

a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests


defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

normal curve

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean, or average (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes


the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed y the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting


the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is on interest

predictive validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior


a group of people from a given time period

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

intellectual disability

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound

down syndrome

a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21


the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

stereotype threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

Howard Gardner proposes that humans have multiple intelligences that are relatively independent of each other. Which of the following is one of the intelligences?

intrapersonal (self) intelligence

According to Spearman, ______________ underlies specific mental abilities, such that it is measured by every task on an intelligence test.

general intelligence (<em>g</em>)

Injury to the _____________________ lobe damages the convergent thinking required by intelligence test scores and for school success.

left parietal

An _____________ measures a person's capacity to learn, whereas an _____________ measures what a person has already learned.

aptitude test; achievement test

This question and the others you are answering on this test are examples of:

achievement tests

Nine-year-old Juno is scheduled to take an intelligence test next week, but his mother cannot remember the name of the test. Which of the following is most likely the test he will be taking?

the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

Casual observations and intelligence test outcomes in children younger than 3:

generally predict future aptitude only minimally

Individuals with mental retardation at this level may progress to sixth-grade level academically, and they may, with assistance, achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills.


Jaden took his SAT tests last year and scored well above average. He is planning to go to graduate school, so he knows he will have to take the GRE tests as well. What do you predict his scores on the GREs will be?

given the stability of aptitude scores at his age, his GRE scores will be well above average

In the Iranian orphanage, the typical child could not sit up unassisted at age ___ or walk at age ___.

2; 4

Hunt's 1961 book, <em>Intelligence and Experience</em> helped launch __________________ in 1965.

Project head Start

_______________ refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes.


Howard Gardner proposes that humans have multiple intelligences that are relatively independent of each other. Which of the following is one of the intelligences?

intrapersonal (self) intelligence

Willis again picked the wrong day to ask his boss for a day off, especially with the multimillion-dollar project proposal due in a couple of days. This best illustrates a lack of:

emotional intelligence

Although Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her anger and responds to her sister's frustration with empathy. Her behavior best illustrates:

emotional intelligence

On the original Stanford-Binet, an 8-year-old who responded with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of:


The _____________ is one of the most widely used intelligence tests for children.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

The widely used American revision of Alfred Binet's original intelligence test was developed by:

Lewis Terman

Twenty-four-year-old Janice recently took an intelligence test that indicated her score was 65. Her academic skills are equivalent to those of a sixth-grader. The degree of Janice's mental retardation is:


The Educational Testing Service conducted a study of 23,000 students who took the SAT and then, four years later, took the GRE. The correlation between their SAT verbal scores and GRE verbal scores was _________, indicating a remarkably stable aptitude.


While it was difficult for his family, they knew that placing Paul in an institution would be best for his safety and well-being as he required constant aid and supervision. Paul's degree of mental retardation is:


_______________ refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes.


Twenty-five-year-old Teresa is a black woman scheduled to take a math aptitude test. To ensure her best performance and reduce the chance of stereotype threat, which of the following situations would you recommend for her?

She should have a black woman administer the test

Your brother is considering adopting an infant from an orphanage that has a reputation for minimal child-caregiver interaction. A 1-year-old boy is available for adoption, but he is passive and not speaking yet. What advice would you give your brother?

provide with responsive caregiving, the chances are good that the boy will learn to talk

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