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social sanctions

rewards or punishment that encourage conformity to social norms


the process of learning to participate in a group

sociological imagination

the ability to see the link between society and self


a distorted, exaggerated, or oversimplified image applied to a category of people


anything that stands for something else and has an agreed upon meaning attached to it


broad ideas about what is good and desirable shared by people in society


Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.




An absolute ruler.


A person who speaks out against the regime in power.


An upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another.


A person who uses unexpected maneuvers like sabatoge and subterfuge to fight an enemy


A limit or reduction in armed forces or weapons.


The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.


Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.


Payment made to the victor by the vanquished to cover the costs of a war.


A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.


A government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.

absolute location

The exact position of a place on the earth's surface.

cultural hearth

A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.


The complex community of interdependent living things in a given environment.

ethnic group

Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics.

functional region

A central point and the surrounding territory linked to it.


Native to a place.


Relying on one another for goods, services, and ideas.

population density

The average number of people in a square mile or square kilometer.

population distribution

The pattern of population in a country, a continent, or the world.


A place united by specific characteristics.


Of or relating to people who live in the country.

subsistence agriculture

Producing just enough food for a family or a village to survive.


Of or located in the city.


the amount of a product that would be offered for sale at all possible prices that could prevail in the market.

standard of living

the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier.

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