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Anatomy Chapter 7 Skeletal Worksheets Part 2

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The extra bones that sometimes develop between the flat bones of the skull are called __________.
SUTURAL BONES.
Small bones occurring in some tendons are called _____________ bones.
SESAMOID
The cranium and facial bones compose the __________.
SKULL
The _________ bone supports the tongue.
HYOID
The _________ at the inferior end of the sacrum is composed of several fused vertebrae.
COCCYX
Most ribs are attached anteriorly to the __________.
STERNUM
The thoracic cage is composed of ________ PAIRS of ribs.
12 - (24 ribs in al)
The scapulae and clavicles together form the _________.
PECTORAL GIRDLE.
Which of the following bones is not part of the appendicular skeleton: clavicle, femur, scapula, sternum?
STERNUM
The wrist is composed of eight bones called ________.
CARPALS
The hip bones are attached posteriorly to the _________.
SACRUM
The pelvic girdle (hip bones), sacrum, and coccyx together form the _________.
PELVIS
The _________ covers the anterior surface of the knee.
PATELLA
The bones that articulate with the distal ends of the tibia and fibula are called _________.
TARSALS
All finger and toe bones are called ___________.
PHALANGES
The pectoral girdle is an incomplete ring because it is open in the back between the....
scalpulae
the medial ends of the clavicles articulate with the _______of the sternum
maniubrium
the lateral ends of the clavicles articulate with the ______ of the scapulae
processes
the ______is a bone that serves as a brace between the sternum and scapula
clavicle
the _____ divides the scapula into unequal portions
spine
the tip of the shoulder is the __________ of the scapula
acromino process
at the lateral end of the scapula, the _________curves anteriorly and inferiorly from the clavicle
coronoid process
the glenoid cavity of the scapula articulates with the ___________of the humerous
head
the vertebral column encloses and protects the_________
spinal cord
the number of seperate bones in the vertebral column of an infant is ___
33
the number of separate bones in the vertebral column of an adult is ____
26
the thoracic and pelvic curvatures of the vertebral column are called_____
primary
the ____ of the vertebrae support the weight of the head and trunk
body
the __________separate adjacent vertebrae, and they soften the forces created by walking
intervertebral discs
the pedicles, laminae, and spinous process of a vertebra form the _____
vertebral arch
the intervertebral foramina provide passageways for _____
spinal nerves
transervse foramina of cervical vertebrae serve as passageways for ____leading to the brain
arteries
the first vertebrae also is called the
atlas
the second vertebrae is also called the
axis
when the head is moved from side to side, the first vertebrae pivots around the _____of the second vertibrae
dens
the ____ vertebrae have the largest and strongest bodies
lumbar
the number of vertebrae that fuse to form the sacrum is ____
5
the joint between a coxal bone of the pelvis and the sacrum is called the ________joint
sacroiliac joint
the upper, anterior margin of the sacrum that projects forward is called the
sacral promentory
an opening called the _____exists at the tip of the sacral canal
sacral hietus
the adult skeleton of most men and women contains a total number of ____bones
206
the last two pairs of ribs that have no cartilaginous attachemnts to the sternum are sometimes called ____ribs
floating
the tubercles of the ribs articulate with facets on the ____processes
transverse
costal cartilages are composed of
hyaline cartilage
the manubrium articulates with the ____on its superior border
clavicle
list three general functions of the thoracic cage
protects organs of the thoracic cavity
aids in breathing
support
raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches
deltoid tuberosity
arm bone
humerus
bones composing the shoulder girdle
Clavicle and scapula
forearm bones
Radius and Ulna
point where scapula and clavicle connect
acromion
shoulder girdle bone that has no attachment to the axial skeleton
scapula
shoulder girdle bone that articulates anteriorly with the sternum
clavicle
socket in the scapula for the arm bone
glenoid cavity
process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment
coracoid process
commonly called the collarbone
clavicle
distal medial process of the humerus; joins the ulna
capitulum
medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position
radius
rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius
trochlea
Anterior depression; superior to the trochlea; receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed
Coronoid Fossa
forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint
ulna
bones that articulate with the clavicle
Sternum and Scapula
bones of the wrist
carpals
bones of the fingers
phalanges
heads of these bones form the knuckles
metacarpals
the head of the numerous fits into the ........of the scapula
glenoid cavity
the heel bone is called the
calcaneus
the elbow joint is an example of a ......joint in which movement occurs in only one plane
hinge
The most important minerals stored in bones are:
A) calcium and iron
B) sodium and phosphorus
C) sodium and potassium
D) calcium and phosphorus
E) calcium and potassium
D) calcium and phosphorus
Which of the following groups of bones in the human body, categorized according to shape, is correct:
A) wrist and ankle bones - long bones B) arm and leg bones - short bones C) skull bones - flat bones
D) coxal bones - irregular bones
E) cranium - sesamoid bones
D) coxal bones - irregular bones
Which of the following bone categories is composed of two layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them:
A) compact bone
B) irregular bone
C) flat bone
D) long bone
E) sesamoid bone
C) flat bone
A shallow, basin-like depression in a bone often serving as an articular surface is a:
A) sinus
B) meatus
C) fossa
D) foramen
E) groove
C) fossa
A round or oval opening through a bone is a:
A) facet
B) fossa
C) foramen
D) fissure
E) trochanter
C) foramen
The small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called:
A) lacunae
B) Volkmann's canals
C) Haversian canals
D) trabeculae
E) lamellae
A) lacunae
A compound fracture can be described as when:
A) the bone is crushed
B) the broken bone ends are forced into each other
C) the broken bone is exposed to the outside
D) the bone is broken into many fragments
E) adjacent bones fracture simultaneously
C) the broken bone is exposed to the outside
A bone fracture where the bone is broken into many fragments is a:

A) compound fracture
B) simple fracture
C) comminuted fracture
D) compression fracture
E) greenstick fracture
C) comminuted fracture
A fracture that is common in children, whose bones have relatively more collagen in their matrix and are more flexible than those of adults, is a(n):
A) impacted fracture
B) spiral fracture
C) depressed fracture
D) greenstick fracture
E) open fracture
E) open fracture
A fracture that is common in osteoporotic bones is a(n):
A) impacted fracture
B) compression fracture
C) spiral fracture
D) depressed fracture
E) simple fracture
B) compression fracture
The axial skeleton contains:
1. skull
2. arms and legs
3. ribs and sternum
4. vertebrae
5. pelvic girdles
A) 1, 3, 4, 5
B) 1, 3, 4
C) 2, 5
D) 2, 3, 4, 5
E) 1, 2, 3, 5
B) 1, 3, 4
Which of these bones is NOT associated with the foot:
A) talus
B) calcaneus
C) metatarsals
D) tarsals
E) metacarpals
E) metacarpals
The hyoid bone is unique because

A) it is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone
B) it has an unusual shape
C) it is covered with mucosa
D) it has no specific function
E) it largely consists of cartilage
A) it is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate w
The sella turcica is part of the __________ bone.
A) parietal
B) ethmoid
C) sphenoid
D) temporal
E) frontal
C) sphenoid
There are __________ vertebrae in the neck region.

A) five thoracic
B) seven lumbar
C) seven cervical D) twelve thoracic E) five lumbar
C) seven cervical
Transverse foramina are found in the: A) sacrum
B) coccyx
C) thoracic vertebrae
D) lumbar vertebrae
E) cervical vertebrae
E) cervical vertebrae
The atlas is the:
A) last lumbar vertebra
B) first thoracic vertebra
C) part of the sacrum
D) second cervical vertebra
E) first cervical vertebra
E) first cervical vertebra
Which is the correct order of ribs, from superior to inferior:
A) floating ribs, true ribs, false ribs
B) floating ribs, false ribs, true ribs
C) true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
D) true ribs, floating ribs, false ribs
E) false ribs, floating ribs, true ribs
C) true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
The sternum is the result of fusion of three bones called the:

A) ischium, ilium, coccyx
B) pubis, ischium, ilium
C) manubrium, body, xiphoid process
D) jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
E) true ribs, manubrium, xiphoid process
C) manubrium, body, xiphoid process
The greater trochanter is located on the:
A) radius
B) humerus
C) fibula
D) tibia
E) femur
E) femur
The tailbone is the:

A) ischium
B) sacrum
C) pubis
D) coccyx
E) patella
D) coccyx
Which of the following is correct of the female pelvis when comparing it with the male pelvis:
A) the angle of the female pubic arch is smaller
B) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater
C) the distance between the female ischial tuberosities is less
D) the female iliac bones are less flared
E) the female pelvis as a whole is deeper, and the bones are heavier and thicker
B) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater
A structure found on the femur is the:

A) anterior crest
B) trochlea
C) lateral malleolus
D) intercondylar fossa
E) medial malleolus
D) intercondylar fossa
Fingers and toes are referred to as:

A) tarsals
B) metacarpals
C) phalanges
D) metatarsals
E) carpals
C) phalanges
Which of these bones is NOT a long bone found in the leg:

A) femur
B) patella
C) fibula
D) metatarsals
E) tibia
B) patella
Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the same anatomical area. Select the exception.

A) humerus
B) radius
C) scapula
D) fibula
E) clavicle
D) fibula
List some of the features of a female pelvis that make it different from a male pelvis.
Answer: The female pelvis:

a. has a larger and more circular inlet.
b. is shallower than the male pelvis.
c. has lighter and thinner bones.
d. has a shorter and less curved sacrum.
e. has a more rounded pubic arch.
f. has shorter ischial spines that are also farther apart.
True/False

Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.
true
True/False

The diaphysis of a long bone is composed of spongy bone.
Answer:
FALSE
True/False

All flat bones are formed from hyaline cartilage.
Answer:
FALSE
True/False

Osteoblasts respond to the parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Answer:
FALSE

(osteoclasts do)
True/False

Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs because they have no anterior attachments
Answer:
FALSE
True/False

The zygomatic bones form the cheekbones.
Answer:
TRUE
True/False


The spinal cord passes through the body of each vertebra.
Answer:
FALSE
True/False


Most of the stress on the vertebral column occurs on the sturdiest vertebrae in the sacral region.
Answer:
FALSE
True/False

In anatomical position, the lateral lower leg bone is the fibula.
Answer:
TRUE
True/False

There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.
Answer:
TRUE
True/False

The heaviest, strongest bone in the body is the femur.
Answer:
TRUE
True/False


Spinal curvatures that are present at birth are called primary curvatures (the cervical and lumbar curvatures) and those that develop later are secondary curvatures (the thoracic and sacral curvatures).
Answer:
FALSE
True/False

Fontanels allow for growth of the brain.
Answer:
TRUE
Explain how atlas and axis are different from other vertebrae. Discuss the roles they play in the body.
Answer:
1. Unlike all other vertebra, atlas (C1) has no body. Axis (C2) has a large process called the dens or odontoid process.
2. The structural differences of these two vertebrae allow you to rotate your head from side to side to indicate "no." The joint between these two vertebrae is a pivot joint.
Differentiate the roles of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes in bone.
Answer:
1. Osteoclasts are giant bone-destroying cells that break down bone matrix and release calcium ions into the blood. They are activiated by a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH).
2. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells. They add bone tissue to growing bones.
3. Osteocytes are mature bone cells. In their former lives, they were osteoblasts that laid down bone matrix, but became trapped in it.
If 6-year-old Sarah fell and broke her femur, damaging the proximal epiphyseal plate, what might she expect as she grows older? What is an epiphyseal plate and why is it significant to this situation?
Answer:
The epiphyseal plate is a flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young growing bone. Epiphyseal plates cause the lengthwise growth of long bone.

Since this child is still growing and has not completed puberty, she may expect impaired growth in that one epiphyseal plate.

Lucky for Sarah, there is an epiphyseal plate located at both the distal and proximal ends of the femur. The healthy distal plate can continue to grow.
Discuss the two factors that cause bone remodeling throughout life.
Answer:
1. Calcium levels in the bloodstream determine when bone is to be broken down. When calcium levels in the bloodstream drop below normal, the parathyroid glands produce and release parathyroid hormone (PTH) into the blood. PTH activates osteoclasts (giant bone-destroying cells in bone) to break down bone and release calcium into the blood. Conversely, when calcium levels in the bloodstream are too high, osteoblasts (bone-forming cells in bone) are activated and calcium is deposited in bone matrix as hard calcium salts.
2. Stresses of muscle pull and gravity acting on the skeleton determine where bone matrix is to be broken down or formed so that the skeleton can remain strong for as long as possible. Long bones grow in length and in thickness as the body increases in size and as a result of the activity of bulky muscles. At these sites, osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) lay down new matrix and become trapped within it. Once they are trapped, they become osteocytes or true bone cells.
__________ are giant cells that destroy bone.
Answer:
Osteoclasts
A large rounded projection on a bone is called a __________.
Answer:
tuberosity
The only freely movable bone in the skull is the __________.
Answer:
mandible
The part of the ethmoid bone that contains holey areas with fibers that carry impulses from the olfactory receptors of the nose to the brain is the __________.
Answer:
cribriform plate
The external acoustic (auditory) meatus is found on the __________ bone.
Answer:
temporal
raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches
deltoid tuberosiry
wrist bones
carpals
finger bones
phalanges
bones that articulate with the clavicle
scapula, sternum
How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic cage?
the clavicle acts as a strut to hold the glenoid cavity of the scapula (therefore the arm) laterally away from the narrowest dimension of the rib cage
What is the total number of phalanges in the hand
14
What is the total number of carpals in the wrist?
8
Name the carpals (medial to lateral) in the proximal row.
pisiform, triangular, Iunate, scaphoid
Name the carpals (medial to lateral) In the distal row
hamare, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium
What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle?
uterus, urinary bladder, small intestine, rectum
Distinguish between the true pelvis and the false pelvis
The true pelvis is the region inferior to the pelvic brim, which is encircled by bone.

The false pelvis is the area medial to the flaring iliac bones and lies superior to the pelvic brim
Deduce why the pelvic bones of a fourJegged animal such as the cat or pig are much less massive than those of the human
The pelvic girdle does not have to carry the entire weight of the trunk in the quadruped animal
A person instinctively curls over his abdominal area in times of danger. Why?
Abdominal area organs receive the least protection from the skeletal system
What does fallen arches mean?
A weakening, of the tendons and ligaments supporting the arches of the foot
what fuses to form the coxal bone (3 things)
ilium, ischium, pubis
"sit-down" bone of the coxal bone
ischium
point where the coxal bones join anteriorly
pubic symphysis
superiormost margin of the coxal bone
iliac crest
deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone
acetabulum
joint between axial skeleton and pelvic girdle
sacroiliac joint
longest, strongest bone in body
femur
thin lateral leg bone
fibula
heavy medial leg bone
tibia
bones forming knee joint
femur, tibia
point where the patellar ligament attaches
tibial tuberosity
knee cap
patella
shinbone
tibia
medial ankle projection
medial malleolus
lateral ankle projection
lateral malleolus
largest tarsal bone
calcaneus
ankle bones
tarsals
bones forming the instep of the foot
metatarsals
opening in hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami
obturator foramen
tarsal bone that "sits" on the calcaneus
talus
weight-bearing bone of the leg
tibia
tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia
talus
small rounded projection
tubercle
large rounded projection
tuberosity
structure supported on a neck
head
armlike projection
ramus
rounded, convex projection
condyle
canal-like structure
meatus
opening through a bone
foramen
shallow depression
fossa
air-filled cavity
sinus
large, irregularly shaped projection
trochanter
sharp, slender process (marking on a bone)
spine
type of vertebrae containing foramina in the transverse process, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain
atlas, axis, cervical
its dens provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra
axis
transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs; spinous process points sharply downward
thoracic vertebrae
composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally
sacrum
massive vertebrae; weight-sustaining
lumbar
tailbone; vestigal fused vertebrae
coccyx
supports the head; allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles
atlas
seven components; unfused
atlas, axis, cervical
fuse to form the coxal bone (hip bone)
ilium, ischium, pubis
receives the weight of the body when sitting
ischial tuberosity
point where coxal bones join anteriorly
pubic symphysis
upper margin of the iliac bones
iliac crest
deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thigh bone
acetabulum
point where the axial skeleton attaches to the pelvic girdle
sacroiliac joint
longest bone in the body; articulates with the coxal bone
femur
lateral bone of the leg
fibula
bones forming the knee joint
femur, patella, tibia
point where the patellar ligament attaches
tibual tuberosity
process forming the outer ankle
lateral malleolus
bones forming the instep of the foot
metatarsals
opening in the coxal bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami
obturator foramen
sites of muscle attachment on the proximal end of the femur
greater and lesser trochanters
tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia
talus
true or false

the pectoral girdle is formed by the articulation of the hip bones and the sacrum
false

pelvic
true or false

bones present in both the hand and foot are carpals
false

phalanges
true or false

the tough fibrous connective tissue covering a bone is the periosteum
true
true or false

the long bones of a fetus are constructed of hylaine cartilage
true
true or false

bones that provide protection to the abdominal viscera are the ribs
true
true or false

the largest foramen in the skull is the foramen magnum
true
true or false

the first major event in fracture healing is the hematoma formation
true
true or false

intercondylar fossa, greater trochanter, tibial tuberosity are all markings of the humerus
false

femur