37 terms

Chapter 8- cellular reproduction

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histone
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
nucleosome
complex that occurs at intervals where the DNA strands wind around the histones
chromatin
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
karyotyping
arrangement of one's chromosomes by homologous pairs in order of decreasing size
46
number of human chromosomes
23
number of human homologous pairs
first 22
number of autosomes
23
number of sex chromosomes
homologous pair
paired chromosomes
diploid
when something has 2 copies of all genes
DNA polymerace
enyme that adds complimentary DNA nucleotides to each stand
chromatid
arm of a chromatin
sister chromatid
two chromatids attached
cell cycle
cell life measure
interphase
stage cells are mostly in; G1- growth, S- synthesis, G2- growth + organelle production
mitosis
4 stages where there is cell growth, repair, and replace (PMAT)
prophase
nuclear membrane disintigrates, chomosomes condense, spindle fibers form to connect to chromosomes (m)
metaphase
chromosomes line up on the cell equator (m)
anaphase
cell elongates, sister chromatid split and move towards toward poles (m)
telophase
nuclear membrane forms, chromosomes discondense, spindles break (m)
cytokinesis
division of the cell cytoplasm
sister chromotids
two genetically identical chromotids
cytokinese
division of cell and cytoplasm
zygote
when sperm and egg fuse during fertilization
gametes
sex cells
haploid
having a single set of chromosomes
products of meiosis
4 haploid gametes genetically unique to each other and parent cells
prophase 1
chromosomes condense, nuclear membrane disintigrates, spindle fibers form, tetrads form (crossing over occurs between homologes) (mi)
tetrad
Each pair of homologous chromosomes
metaphase 1
homologue line up on cell equator (mi)
anaphase 1
chromosomes move towards poles; homologue are moving and separating to poles, not chromatid (mi)
telephase 1
cell completely divides (mi)
prophase 2
spindle fibers form (mi)
metaphase 2
chromosomes line up on cell equator (mi)
anaphase 2
cell elongates chromotid separates and moves to poles (mi)
telophase 2
chromosomes discondense, spindle fibers disappear (mi)