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Hermel Lecture 3 - Adaptive Immunity
Terms in this set (27)
What types of molecules do these antigen binding molecules bind?
MHC Class I or II
Antibody - large and small molecules
TCR - Oligopeptides + MHC molecules
MHC Class I or II - oligopeptides
An antibody has 2 _____ and 2 _____ chains. The two heavy chains are connected via _______ bonds. The chains contain _____ and ______ regions.
Antigens bind to ______ regions on antibodies, specifically called _______ . The portion of the antibody that binds is called the ________.
Cleavage of antibody with Papain yields:
2x Fab + Fc
Cleavage of antibody with Pepsin yields:
1x Fab + 2 Fc
What are the two light chain isotypes?
kappa (coded on chromosome 2) and lambda (chromosome 22)
Three clinical applications of antibody isotopes
Diagnosing Infections and their stages
Identifying B cell tumors
FcεR have roles in _____ cell and ______ functions
Most important FcR are found on these 4 types of cells:
FcRs are crucial for antibody-mediated ______.
Name differences between Antibodies and TCRs with respect to which antigens they bind.
Antibodies: Recognize protein, lipid, carbohydrate and small molecule antigens. Binds conformational AND linear epitopes
TCRs: Recognize peptides displayed by MHCs on APCs. Bind linear epitopes only
How many potentially different specificities can there be for Antibodies and TCRs?
Which regions of antibodies and TCRs recognize antigens?
Antibodies: Variable regions on heavy and light chains
TCRs: Variable regions on alpha and beta chains
TCR is coexpressed with ______
MHC is a cluster of closely linked genes on chromosome ___. Key molecules encoded in MHC are the _____ molecules
HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigens)
2 functions of MHCs
Control T cell mediated immune responses
Determine fate of transplanted tissues
The HLA molecules differ in:
Cell types expressed on
Peptide generation pathways
T cells they talk to
Name the 3 most significant Class I and Class II MHC molecules
Class I: HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C
Class II: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR
In MHC I molecules, the peptide binds in a closed-ended cleft between the ____ and _____ regions. It holds peptides ___-____ amino acids long. The β2-microglobulin serves to _______ the MHC I polypeptide chain and is not encoded in the MHC
In MHC II molecules, the peptide binds in an open-ended cleft created by the _____ and ______ regions. It can hold peptides between ___-_____ amino acids long.
HLA typing is done for (4 reasons)
1. Determine HLA matching between transplant donor and recipient
2. Confirm HLA identity for related individuals
3. Diagnose certain HLA-associated diseases
4. Screen unrelated donors for bone marrow transplant
MHC genes are co-dominant which means _______________. They are inherited as ____.
both parental alleles are expressed
MHC molecules are called ________ in a transplantation setting. They are recognized by _______ and ______.
Most important cytokines are (3 types)
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
What do Complement Receptors bind and what is the signal that is transduced?
Activates phagocytosis, promotes inflammation, or clears immune complexes.
What do Cytokine Receptors bind and what is the signal that is transduced?
Deliver activation, growth and differentiation signals. Some are inhibitory. (Targets of biologics)
What do Chemokine receptors trigger?
Cellular movement towards a site of keeping cells at a site.
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