35 terms

WHI.10

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medieval period
lasted from the end of the roman empire to the renaissance, 1066-1485, also called the Middle Ages
Silk Routes
across Asia to the Mediterranean Basin
Maritime Routes
across the Indian Ocean
Trans-Saharan routes
across Northern Africa
Northern European routes
connected to the Black Sea
Western European routes
sea and river routes
South China Sea routes
linked lands of Southeast Asia
diffusion
spread
Gold
precious metal from Western Africa
Spices
valuable good from lands around the Indian Ocean
Textiles
cloth, came from India, China, the Middle East, and later Europe
Porcelain
ceramic pottery from China and Persia
Amber
yellowish resin from the Baltic region, used in jewelry
paper
product from China that moved to the Muslim world, then to Byzantium and Western Europe
Byzantium
the civilization that developed from the eastern Roman Empire following the death of the emperor Justinian (C.E. 565), Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire here, until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
waterwheel
a wheel that rotates by direct action of water, provides running water and power, came from the Middle East
windmill
generator that extracts usable energy from winds, came from the Middle East
compass
navigational tool from China, used to tell direction
lateen sail
Triangular sail that was developed in Indian Ocean trade that allowed a ship to sail against the wind
archipelago
a group of many islands in a large body of water, Japan is one, with 4 main islands
Sea of Japan
an arm of the Pacific between China and Japan, also known as the East Sea
Chinese architecture
Emphasized articulation and bilateral symmetry; signifies balance, influenced the styles in Japan
Buddhism
This religion was founded by Siddhartha Gautama and explained the way to salvation through self-discipline and poverty. It evolved from Hinduism in northern India and Nepal, now centers in China and Japan
Shinto
ethnic religion in Japan, focuses on the importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors
as a state religion it featured worship of the emperor
coexists with Buddhism in Japan
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
Songhai
this group from the east of Mali built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River
Axum
a trading center and a powerful, ancient, Christian kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia.
Zimbabwe
South East of the Zambezi River, North of the Limpopo River, supplied gold, copper, and ivory along the Indian Coast,
Great Zimbabwe
Capital City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a prosperous empire
Niger River
located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river
Sahara
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
Timbuktu
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life, foundation of ancient African cultures
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran, influential in African cultures