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monarchs followed the advice of philosophes and ruled by enlightened principles such as natural rights, establishing a path to modern nationhood
reign had bigger debt and higher taxes, ruled alone, laxy and weak, influenced by his many ministers and mistresses
replaced the duke of Orleans as king's minister. Pulled away from foreign adventures because commerce and trade expanded so the government promoted growth of industry
Madame de Pompadour
the most influential mistress of Louis XV, gained wealth and power, made important government decisions and gave advice on appointments and foreign policy
did not have the energy for state affairs. married to Marie Antoinette, underwent financial crisis
many pieces of small lands or boroughs controlled by one person, support through patronage and bribery ("in the pocket")
The Hanoverians / the Georges
After the Stuarts, no sudden heir so given tot he Protestant rulers of the German state of Hanover, did not understand the BRitish system so allowed Parliament to take control, later developing the modern cabinet system in British government
first prime minister under Hanoverians, pursued peaceful foreign policy to avoid new land taxes
William Pitt the Elder
furthered imperial ambitions by acquiring Canada and India in Seven Years' War, George III replaced him with Lord Burt.
Patriots vs. Orangists
regents wanted to reduce power of Organists, and the Patriots (dutch burghers) wanted to open up municipal councils than the oligarchs. Patriots started to interfere with foreign interference and later crushed because the Prussian king wanted to protect his sister who is the wife of the Organist stadholder. Orangists and regents later reestablished old system
Frederick William I
established the General Directory, ensured close bond between the nobility and army, junkers played a big role
Frederick II the Great
had the philosophe Voltaire tutor him at court, eliminate the use of torture except in cases of murder or treason made Prussia one of Europe's great power, enlarged the army and use it in foreign policy disputes
"the first servant of the state"
Frederick William I, utter and complete devotion to the servitude of the king and state
conservative and not open to wider reform calls of philosophes, wanted Silesia back after War of Austrian Succession
all his subjects were equal before the law, most enlightened ruler, though his reforms were relatively short-lived and put him in conflict with the Austrian nobility
Catherine II the Great
husband Peter III murdered by a faction of nobles, new law code, divided Russia into fifty providences, attempted to reform the society but had to keep support from Palace Guard
rebellion led Catherine the Great to make a philosophical break from her Enlightenment ideals, support from peasants and seized many landlords' estates, died down when government became effective, later executed
War of Austrian Succession
involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of House of Habsburg, Prussia seized Silesia
land that Austria and Prussia were in conflict over, Prussia finally got to keep this land after Seven Years War
Seven Years' War
led to the weakening of the French; made Britain a world power, Diplomatic revolution, battle of rossbach, british capture of forts duquesne and louisbourg, (french indian war), peace of hubertusburg and treaty of paris, believed to be the first world war
battle of quebec, Austria allied with Russia and France, Britain allied with Prussia, Britain wins with naval power
Montcalm and Wolfe
General James Wolf = British leader, General Louis-Joseph Montcalm = French leader, both died during the French-Indian War
Treaty of Paris
French forced to make peace after many British victories, 1763, ceded Canada and lands east of Mississippi to Britain, French gave Louisiana territory to Spanish, ended French and Indian War
Scurvy and yellow fever
conditions of the naval ships were very repulsive, these diseases were rampant and constant
lower class forced to duty in the military services, usually vegabonds and the unemployed
Coitus interuptus and infanticide
a way of birth control, crime of abandoning a child or "accidently" smothering a child in the parents' bed within a year of birth, to get rid of an extra mouth to feed
Potatoes and maize
brought from Europe to America, peasants forced to rely on small plots of land, little effort to grow large quantities, easily stored for winter
large landowners took old fields and small pieces of land to form large estates, cooperative farming and open field system, increase food production, farmers become wage laborers, no more traditional patterns in English village life
Bank of England
recieve deposits, exchange foreign currencies, made loans, lend money, used "banknotes," created notion of public and private debt for the London financial community: financing larger armies and other government undertakings
John Law's "bubble"
tried to form the French Company into a national bank, people drove the price of stock very high and made the bank go bankrupt, so French public finance wa slow in development
The "putting out" or "domestic system" or cottage industry
merchants give raw materials such as wool or fleece to the rural workers in the countryside, one cottage would make yarn, move to the next to weave into cloth on looms, the finished products would be given to the merchants to sell for profit, the rural workers were also able to recieve wages as agricultural laborers
Richard Arkwright's "water frame"
higher demand of yarn, helped make large quantities of yarn after the invention of the shuttle frame to make more cloth
The country house
a place of privacy and indulgence, aristocrats use as vacation, usually Georgian style, lower for public guests, upper for private rooms, sometimes a park or extra land for more seculsion
artist Conversation in the park showed the relaxed state of the aristocrats at their parks and country houses
intended to train young men in becoming sophisticated behavior and complete their education
Hercuaneum and Popmeii
great sightseeing stops for grand tours, tourist attractions, ancient Roman towns
Beggars and prostitutes
no more charity because of fear of inclinations to crimes and stimulate greed, government should also be included in charity through public work
"balance of power"
counterbalancing the power of a state by another to prevent any one state form dominating the others
"reason of state"
where a ruler looks beyond dynastic interests and focuses on the betterment of the state
Henry VII 1458 - 1509
Henry VIII 1509 - 1547
Edward VI 1547 - 1553
Mary I 1553 - 1558
Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603
James I 1603 - 1625
Charles I 1625 - 1649
Commonwealth - Oliver Cromwell 1649 - 1660
Charles II 1660 - 1685
James II 1685 - 1688
William and Mary 1688 - 1702
Anne 1702 - 1714
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