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Enlightened absolutism

monarchs followed the advice of philosophes and ruled by enlightened principles such as natural rights, establishing a path to modern nationhood

Louis XV

reign had bigger debt and higher taxes, ruled alone, laxy and weak, influenced by his many ministers and mistresses

Cardinal Fleury

replaced the duke of Orleans as king's minister. Pulled away from foreign adventures because commerce and trade expanded so the government promoted growth of industry

Madame de Pompadour

the most influential mistress of Louis XV, gained wealth and power, made important government decisions and gave advice on appointments and foreign policy

Louis XVI

did not have the energy for state affairs. married to Marie Antoinette, underwent financial crisis

Marie Antoinette

spoiled Austrian princess always involved wtih court intrigues

The United Kingdom

1707 government united England and Scotland, British refers to Brits and Scots

"pocket boroughs"

many pieces of small lands or boroughs controlled by one person, support through patronage and bribery ("in the pocket")

The Hanoverians / the Georges

After the Stuarts, no sudden heir so given tot he Protestant rulers of the German state of Hanover, did not understand the BRitish system so allowed Parliament to take control, later developing the modern cabinet system in British government

Robert Walpole

first prime minister under Hanoverians, pursued peaceful foreign policy to avoid new land taxes

"Wilkes and Liberty"

slogan used to give the common people of London the right to vote

William Pitt the Elder

furthered imperial ambitions by acquiring Canada and India in Seven Years' War, George III replaced him with Lord Burt.

Patriots vs. Orangists

regents wanted to reduce power of Organists, and the Patriots (dutch burghers) wanted to open up municipal councils than the oligarchs. Patriots started to interfere with foreign interference and later crushed because the Prussian king wanted to protect his sister who is the wife of the Organist stadholder. Orangists and regents later reestablished old system

Frederick William I

established the General Directory, ensured close bond between the nobility and army, junkers played a big role


nobility or landed aristocracy

"Prussian Militarism"

extreme exaltation of military virtues

Frederick II the Great

had the philosophe Voltaire tutor him at court, eliminate the use of torture except in cases of murder or treason made Prussia one of Europe's great power, enlarged the army and use it in foreign policy disputes

"the first servant of the state"

Frederick William I, utter and complete devotion to the servitude of the king and state

Maria Theresa

conservative and not open to wider reform calls of philosophes, wanted Silesia back after War of Austrian Succession

Joseph II

all his subjects were equal before the law, most enlightened ruler, though his reforms were relatively short-lived and put him in conflict with the Austrian nobility

Catherine II the Great

husband Peter III murdered by a faction of nobles, new law code, divided Russia into fifty providences, attempted to reform the society but had to keep support from Palace Guard


peasants who worked the land, were not owned but lived on the land

Emelyn Pugachev

rebellion led Catherine the Great to make a philosophical break from her Enlightenment ideals, support from peasants and seized many landlords' estates, died down when government became effective, later executed

Partitions of Poland

Prussia, Austria, and Russia

War of Austrian Succession

involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of House of Habsburg, Prussia seized Silesia


land that Austria and Prussia were in conflict over, Prussia finally got to keep this land after Seven Years War

Robert Clive

controlled the British in India

Seven Years' War

led to the weakening of the French; made Britain a world power, Diplomatic revolution, battle of rossbach, british capture of forts duquesne and louisbourg, (french indian war), peace of hubertusburg and treaty of paris, believed to be the first world war

French-Indian War

battle of quebec, Austria allied with Russia and France, Britain allied with Prussia, Britain wins with naval power

Montcalm and Wolfe

General James Wolf = British leader, General Louis-Joseph Montcalm = French leader, both died during the French-Indian War

Treaty of Paris

French forced to make peace after many British victories, 1763, ceded Canada and lands east of Mississippi to Britain, French gave Louisiana territory to Spanish, ended French and Indian War

Scurvy and yellow fever

conditions of the naval ships were very repulsive, these diseases were rampant and constant


lower class forced to duty in the military services, usually vegabonds and the unemployed

Coitus interuptus and infanticide

a way of birth control, crime of abandoning a child or "accidently" smothering a child in the parents' bed within a year of birth, to get rid of an extra mouth to feed

Potatoes and maize

brought from Europe to America, peasants forced to rely on small plots of land, little effort to grow large quantities, easily stored for winter

Agricultural enclosures

large landowners took old fields and small pieces of land to form large estates, cooperative farming and open field system, increase food production, farmers become wage laborers, no more traditional patterns in English village life

Bank of England

recieve deposits, exchange foreign currencies, made loans, lend money, used "banknotes," created notion of public and private debt for the London financial community: financing larger armies and other government undertakings


paper currency replacing gold and silver, used for credit

John Law's "bubble"

tried to form the French Company into a national bank, people drove the price of stock very high and made the bank go bankrupt, so French public finance wa slow in development

The "putting out" or "domestic system" or cottage industry

merchants give raw materials such as wool or fleece to the rural workers in the countryside, one cottage would make yarn, move to the next to weave into cloth on looms, the finished products would be given to the merchants to sell for profit, the rural workers were also able to recieve wages as agricultural laborers

Richard Arkwright's "water frame"

higher demand of yarn, helped make large quantities of yarn after the invention of the shuttle frame to make more cloth

The country house

a place of privacy and indulgence, aristocrats use as vacation, usually Georgian style, lower for public guests, upper for private rooms, sometimes a park or extra land for more seculsion

Thomas Gainsborough

artist Conversation in the park showed the relaxed state of the aristocrats at their parks and country houses

Grand Tour

intended to train young men in becoming sophisticated behavior and complete their education

Hercuaneum and Popmeii

great sightseeing stops for grand tours, tourist attractions, ancient Roman towns

London's one million

population of London making it the largest city of Europe

Beggars and prostitutes

no more charity because of fear of inclinations to crimes and stimulate greed, government should also be included in charity through public work

"balance of power"

counterbalancing the power of a state by another to prevent any one state form dominating the others

"reason of state"

where a ruler looks beyond dynastic interests and focuses on the betterment of the state

Tudor Dynasty-Britain

Henry VII 1458 - 1509
Henry VIII 1509 - 1547
Edward VI 1547 - 1553
Mary I 1553 - 1558
Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603

Stuart Dynasty-Britain

James I 1603 - 1625
Charles I 1625 - 1649
Commonwealth - Oliver Cromwell 1649 - 1660
Charles II 1660 - 1685
James II 1685 - 1688
William and Mary 1688 - 1702
Anne 1702 - 1714

Bourbon Dynasty-France

Henry IV 1589 - 1610
Louis XIII 1610 - 1643
Louis XIV 1643 - 1715
Louis XV 1715 - 1774
Louis XVI 1774 - 1792
French Revolution - Napoleon I
Louis XVIII 1814 - 1824
Charles X 1824 - 1830

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