European middle ages
Terms in this set (51)
warrior king of the franks.
established many germanic kingdoms that replaced the roman empire.
the middle ages in europe or the period of history between ancient and modern times (500-1500).
german and romance/roman languages being.
germanic tribe that conquered present day france and neighboring lands in the 400s.
mostly farmers and herders.
frankish military and political leader.
wins battle of tours against muslims.
battle of tours
battle in 732 in which the christian franks led by charles martel defeated muslim armies and stopped their advance into europe.
grandson of charles martel.
became king of franks.
united western europe when he built an empire reaching across france, germany, and part of italy.
a.k.a charles the great.
namadic people who settled in present day hungary in 900
scandinavian peoples whose sailors raided europe from the 700s-1100s.
broke the last threads of unity in charlemagne's empire.
independent farmers ruled by landowning chieftains.
also traders and explorers.
opened trade routes that linked north europe to mediterranean lands.
loosly organized system of rule in which powerful lords divided their landholdings among lessser lords.
it was in response to need for protection of the people.
decentralized political and economic structure.
a lesser lord who was granted lands (fiefs) in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater lord.
exchange of pledges between lords and vassals.
estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty.
european nobles who served as mounted warriors.
boys begin to train for knighthood at age 7, usually knighted at 21
gain experience from tournaments.
a mock battle in which knights would compete against one another to display their fighting skills
code of conduct for knights.
to protect weak and poor, serve feudal lord, god, chosen lady
a wandering poet or singer.
songs became the basis for epic stories and poems.
a lords estate, which included one or more villages in the surrounding lands.
give and take.
serfs maintain estate, give grain. lords provide them with a house, land, protection
manor is self sufficient, produces own stuff
peasents pay taxes, tithe to a priest
poor diet, maltutrition, illness made life expectancy less than 35 (26-27)
peasant bound to the lords land.
sacred ritual of the roman catholic church.
christians belived that participation in them would lead them to salvation.
rules drawn up in 530 by benedict, a monk, regulating monotheistic life.
emphesizes obedience, poverty, and the chastity and divides the day into periods of worship, work and study.
having to do with worldly, rather than religious matter; nonreligious.
church hierarchy became most powerful secular.
the claim of medieval popes that they had authority over all secular rulers including kings and emperors.
body of laws of a church.
governed many aspects of life including wills, marriages, and morals.
exclusion from the roman catholic church as a penalty for refusing to obey church law.
most severe penalty.
those excommunicated could not recieve the sacraments or a christian burrial, which condemned them to hell.
excommunication of an entire region, town, or kingdom.
usually caused revolts by common people.
monk who traveled place to place preaching to the poor.
st. francis of assisi
founded the first order of friars, the franciscans.
devoted himself to preaching the gospels and teaching by his own examples of good works.
money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise.
group of merchants who joined together to finance a large scale venture that would have been too costly for any individual trader.
made capital more easliy available.
someone who would pay rent to a lord to farm part of the lords land.
most peasants were this or hired farm laborers.
group of people, including merchants, traders, and artisans, whose rank was between nobles and peasants.
association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to uphold standards of their trade and to protect their economic interests.
merchant guilds appeared first.
decided whether to spend funds.
a young person learning a trade from a master.
might become one at 7 or 8.
got food and housing.
a salaried worker employed by a guild master.
written document that set out the rights and privleges of a town..
land owner gives fiefs in exchange for serivces.
fall of roman empire
cities are abandoned, learning declines.
greek/latin languages lost.
converts germanic and celtic groups.
pope and warrior.
under him, church becomes secular- a political power.
popes palace becomes center of roman government.
church has armies, cares for poor and negotiates treaties.
churchy kingdom fanning out from rome
the franks- france, defeat muslims
pope gave crown to carolingians
treaty of verdun
843, charlemagnes grandsons divide empire into 3 kindgoms 1. france 2. north italy 3.germany
king of germany in 936
gets support from church
limits power of nobles
invades italy on popes behalf
ottos german- italian lands become holy roman empire- powerful until 1100
fight between pope gregory and emperor henry IV
henry orders pope to resign- gregory excommunicates henry
effect: germany became disunited
where monks live to study and serve god, all are equal, foster agriculture and care for orphans, perserve learning through libraries, establish schools.
kings > nobles > knights > monks, nuns, leaders of church > peasants/serfs
nobles and knights
those who fight
those who work
monks, nuns, leaders of church
those who pray
invention of saddle and stirrups made mounted knight become most important part of army
knights were rewarded with land
all lords were knights, but not all knights were lords
46 year reign.
became emperor of romans in 800.
spread christianity to conquered people.
set out to revive latin learning and opened schools.
pope crowns him roman emperor.