McDougal Littell Biology Chapter 4

a molecule that transports energy from the cell breakdown of food molecules to cell processes; adenine triphosphate
lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group; adenine diphosphate
a process that captures energy from the sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy
a molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light
stacks of coin shaped, membrane enclosed compartments; contain chlorophyll and protiens
light-dependent reactions
capture energy from the sunlight; take place within and across the membranes of the thylakoids
light-independent reactions
use energy from the light dependent reactions to make energy; occur in the stoma of the chloroplasts
during light-dependent reactions, energy is captured and transferred in the thylakoid membranes by two groups of molecules
electron transport chain
a series of proteins in the membrane of the thylakoid
ATP synthase
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Calvin Cycle
chemical reactions that use carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and the energy carried by ATP and NADPH go make simple sugars
cellular respiration
releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present
a process that needs oxygen in order to take place
splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules and makes two molecules of ATP
a process that does not need oxygen to take place
krebs cycle
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
lactic acid
Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.