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Arts and Humanities
AP Language and Composition Syntax Definitions and Examples
Terms in this set (39)
the structure of sentences, their types, their uses, their connection, and the variations authors choose, but also to smaller structures within sentences
telegraphic sentence length
shorter than 5 words in length
short sentence length
approximately 5 words in length
medium sentence length
approximately 18 words in length
long sentence length
long and involved-30 words or more length
telegraphic, short, medium, and long
What are the sentence lengths?
declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory
What are the types of sentences?
makes a statement (assertive)
The king is sick.
What is an example of a declarative sentence?
gives a command (authoritative)
Cure the king!
What is an example of a imperative sentence?
asks a question (questioning)
Is the king sick?
What is an example of a interrogative sentence?
makes an exclamation (emotional)
The king is dead; long live the king!
What is an example of an exclamatory sentence?
simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex
What are the sentence structures?
contains one subject and one verb; has only one main, complete thought
The singer bowed to her adoring audience
What is an example of a simple sentence?
contains 2 independent clauses joined by a coordinate conjunction (and, but, or) or by a semicolon; has 2 or more main, complete thoughts; two or more simple sentences are joined, usually with or, but, or and
The singer bowed to the audience, but she sane no encores
What is an example of a compound sentence?
has 1 simple sentence and one or more clauses; the clauses are connected to the simple sentence with words like because, while, when, if, as, although, since, unless, after, so, which, who, and that; contains an independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses
After she bowed to the audience, the singer sang an encore
What is an example of a complex sentence?
a combination of the above; contains 2 or principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses
The singer bowed while the audience applauded, but she sang no encores
What is an example of a compound-complex sentence
makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending
We reached Edmonton/that morning/after a turbulent flight/and some exciting experiences
What is an example of a loose sentence?
makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached
That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton
What is an example of a periodic sentence?
the phrases and clauses balance each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadth me beside the still waters
What is an example of a balanced sentence?
loose or cumulative sentence
one in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent clauses and phrases
natural order of a sentence
involves constructing a sentence so the subject comes before the predicate
Oranges grow in California
What is an example of a natural order of a sentence?
inverted order of a sentence (sentence inversion)
involves constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the subject (this is a device in which normal sentence patterns are reserved to create an emphatic or rhythmic effect)
In California grow oranges
What is an example of the inverted order of a sentence (sentence inversion)?
split order of a sentence
divides the predicate into 2 parts with the subject coming in the middle
In California oranges grow
What is an example of a split order of a sentence?
refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence; it involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased
He was walking, running and jumping for joy
What is an example of parallel structure (parallelism)
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