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A naturally-occurring inorganic solid that has crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.


any substance that contains only one atom and cannot be broken down into a simpler substances


solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern


A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter

igneous rock

A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.


molten rock beneath the earth's surface


molten rock that reaches the Earth's surface

sedimentary rock

A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together

metamorphic rock

A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure (weight), or chemical reactions


the process by which bonds between atoms in minerals break and re-form in new ways during metamorphism.

rock cycle

is the set of natural processes by which rocks from, change, break down and re-form. The rock cycle never stops - rocks always change.


The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface caused by water, ice, and wind..

mechanical weathering

process by which rock is split or broken into smaller pieces like one rock crushing another, without changing its chemical composition

chemical weathering

or change them into different minerals

geologic map

A map representing the rock formations, hazards and resources exposed at Earth's surface

4 characteristics of a mineral

Forms in nature, solid, definite chemical composition, crystal structure

2 common rock-forming minerals

silicates and carbonates

only 30 minerals

make up most of the earths crust.


rock forming mineral that make up 90% of the earths rocks


rock forming mineral that contain carbon and oxygen produced by clams.


a mineral that contain minerals from which metals are made.

molten rock

is a mixture of melted rock, solid mineral crystals and gases.

intrusive igneous rocks

cool inside the earth like granite

extrusive igneous rocks

cool outside the earth like rhyolite

sediment rocks are carried

by wind and water and are pressed together.

3 types of rocks

Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic

95% of the earths crust

equals igneous and metamorphic rock

75% of the earths surface

contains sedimentary rock.

geologic cycle

includes all the processes by which the earths mountains are worn down and then built up again.

4 types of mechanical weathering

ice wedging, pressure release, plant root growth, abrasion.

2 causes of chemical weathering

water helps dissolves the rocks and oxygen rusts it.

rocks top to bottom

shale, slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss.

features of a geologic map

elevation, resources, hazards type and age of rocks

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