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33 terms

chapter 6 science test

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mineral
A naturally-occurring inorganic solid that has crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
element
any substance that contains only one atom and cannot be broken down into a simpler substances
crystal
solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern
rock
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
igneous rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
magma
molten rock beneath the earth's surface
lava
molten rock that reaches the Earth's surface
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
metamorphic rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure (weight), or chemical reactions
recrystallization
the process by which bonds between atoms in minerals break and re-form in new ways during metamorphism.
rock cycle
is the set of natural processes by which rocks from, change, break down and re-form. The rock cycle never stops - rocks always change.
weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface caused by water, ice, and wind..
mechanical weathering
process by which rock is split or broken into smaller pieces like one rock crushing another, without changing its chemical composition
chemical weathering
or change them into different minerals
geologic map
A map representing the rock formations, hazards and resources exposed at Earth's surface
4 characteristics of a mineral
Forms in nature, solid, definite chemical composition, crystal structure
2 common rock-forming minerals
silicates and carbonates
only 30 minerals
make up most of the earths crust.
silicates
rock forming mineral that make up 90% of the earths rocks
carbonates
rock forming mineral that contain carbon and oxygen produced by clams.
oxides
a mineral that contain minerals from which metals are made.
molten rock
is a mixture of melted rock, solid mineral crystals and gases.
intrusive igneous rocks
cool inside the earth like granite
extrusive igneous rocks
cool outside the earth like rhyolite
sediment rocks are carried
by wind and water and are pressed together.
3 types of rocks
Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic
95% of the earths crust
equals igneous and metamorphic rock
75% of the earths surface
contains sedimentary rock.
geologic cycle
includes all the processes by which the earths mountains are worn down and then built up again.
4 types of mechanical weathering
ice wedging, pressure release, plant root growth, abrasion.
2 causes of chemical weathering
water helps dissolves the rocks and oxygen rusts it.
rocks top to bottom
shale, slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss.
features of a geologic map
elevation, resources, hazards type and age of rocks